Andrei Belyi

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Belyi, Andrei


(pseudonym of Boris Nikolaevich Bugaev). Born Oct. 14 (26), 1880, in Moscow; died Jan. 8, 1934, in Moscow. Russian writer; theoretician of symbolism.

Belyi graduated from the mathematics department of Moscow University (1903). His first verses came out in 1901. He belonged to the symbolists of the “younger” generation. His first collection of poems was Gold in Azure (1904). The four “symphonies” written in rhythmical prose (The Heroic, 1900, published in 1903 under the title Northern Symphony; Dramatic Symphony, 1902; Return, 1905; Goblet of Snowstorms, 1908) were marked by decadent features.

The Revolution of 1905–07 aroused Belyi’ s interest in social problems (the collection of poems Ashes, 1909). In the novel Petersburg (1913–14, revised edition, 1922), a harsh satire of reactionary, bureaucratic St. Petersburg emerges through symbolic imagery; however, the revolutionary movement is shown in a distorted light. While abroad in 1912, Belyi was under the influence of the leader of anthroposophy, R. Steiner. In 1916, Belyi returned to Russia. After the October Revolution, from 1919–22, he published the symbolist-oriented journal Notes of Dreamers.

In the postrevolutionary years he wrote primarily prose: the autobiographical novellas Kotik Letaev (1922) and The Baptized Chinaman (1927), and the historical epic Moscow (part 1, The Eccentric of Moscow, 1926; part 2, Moscow Under Attack, 1926; and Masks, 1932). In his prose Belyi remained faithful to the symbolist aesthetic with its fragmented plot, its shifting planes, and its attention to rhythm and the auditory effect of phrasing. He developed a symbolist aesthetic (the collection of articles Symbolism, 1910) and a theory of rhythm in verse and prose in which he was the first to make use of mathematical methods (Rhythm as Dialectic and the “Bronze Horseman,” 1929, and articles in the journal The Furnace in 1919). Belyi’s memoirs On The Border Between Two Centuries (1930), The Beginning of the Century: Memoirs (1933), and Between Two Revolutions (1934) are of great interest.


Sobr. soch., vols. 4, 7. Moscow, 1917.
Masterstvo Gogolia. Moscow-Leningrad, 1934.
Aleksandr Blok i Andrei Belyi: Perepiska. Moscow, 1940.
Stikhotvoreniia i poemy. (With an introductory article by T. Iu. Khmel’nitskaia.) Moscow-Leningrad, 1966.


Briusov, V. Dalekie i blizkie. Moscow, 1912.
Voronskii, A. Literaturnye portrety, vol. 1. Moscow, 1928.
Literaturnoe nasledstvo, vols. 27–28. Moscow, 1937.
Mikhailovskii, B. V. Russkaia literatura XX. v. Moscow, 1939.
Istoriia russkoi literatury, vol. 10. Moscow-Leningrad, 1954.
Denisova, L. Problema dialektiki v sovetskoi estetike 20-kh godov. In Iz istorii sovetskoi esteticheskoi mysli: Sb. st. Moscow, 1967. Pages 407–13.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
is cinematography"; "philosophical poetry is good poetry, while philosophical theater is mostly boring." In important respects Losev reads like a scholastic summa of the symbolist aesthetics of Viacheslav Ivanov, Andrei Belyi and Pavel Florenskii.
the Andrei Belyi prize again in 2009 for his poetry collection
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Heckel exalted as inimitable works of art while in fact they were shaped by the natural sedimentation of organic life," Andrei Belyi wrote in 1933.
Andrei Belyi: There has clearly been a trend towards economic nationalism in several countries producing energy resources over the current period of rising oil prices.
Lincoln devotes an insightful chapter to those who "combined a taste for debauchery with the hope of salvation." In it we meet some of the most colorful figures of Russia's "Silver Age": the ravishing poet Zinaida Gippius; her husband, the religious philosopher Dmitri Merezhkovskii; the mystical poet Alexander Blok; the Symbolist poet/novelist Andrei Belyi (pseudonym of Boris Bugaev).
Among them are Konstantin Bal'mont's translations of Shelley which bear the imprint of his immersion in Vedic texts at Oxford, the immense importance of Edgar Allen Poe for the poetic practice and theories of poetic language of Bal'mont, Valerii Briusov, Andrei Belyi, Aleksandr Potebnia and Velimir Khlebnikov, the influence of the Pre-Raphaelites on Vladimir Soloviev's sophiological lyric s and the impact of John Ruskin's forebodings about the course of the modern world on Aleksandr Blok's apocalyptic premonitions.
three in Russia, He was short-listed for the Andrei Belyi prize in 2002.
Andrei Belyi: It is basically a political dialogue designed to foster the spirit of partnership, political communication and mutual comprehension of policy issues.
And in the early years of the twentieth century the prospect of a duel seemed to be a necessary qualification for a writer; among would-be duellists were such luminaries as Andrei Belyi, Gumilev, Voloshin, Zoshchenko, Kaverin and Pasternak.
category) in 2002 and the Andrei Belyi Prize (prose category) in 2009.
Olga Muller Cooke's article expands on the Mandel'shtams' original insight that the poems Mandel'shtam wrote in memory of Andrei Belyi were also a requiem to himself, but she does not show the specific ways in which this is so (the poems' links with the Stalin Epigram' and Stalin Ode' and with Mandel'shtam's true requiem to himself, 'Stikhi o neizvestnom soldate' ('Verses on the Unknown Soldier').