Andrew, John Albion

Andrew, John Albion,

1818–67, Civil War governor of Massachusetts (1861–66), b. Windham, Maine. He practiced law in Boston, but his antislavery sympathies drew him into politics. He was one of the organizers of the Free-Soil party and later of the Republican party. Soon after taking office as governor, he secured both special legislation placing the militia in readiness and an appropriation for transporting it to Washington. When Lincoln's call came, the 6th Massachusetts regiment was the first to reach the capital. The same spirit characterized Andrew's actions throughout the war, and his zeal was imparted to the people. When peace came, he advocated a policy of friendship and leniency toward the South.


See biography by H. G. Pearson (1904); W. B. Hesseltine, Lincoln and the War Governors (1948).

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Andrew, John Albion

(1818–67) governor; born in Windham, Maine. He attended Bowdoin College where he was known for his strong antislavery views. A Boston lawyer, he helped to organize the Free Soil Party (1848), became a leader of the new Republican Party, and raised money for John Brown's defense (1859). As governor of Massachusetts (1860–66), he worked indefatigably to raise and equip regiments for the Union cause. Most notably, he successfully worked for the creation of the first regiment (the 54th) of African-Americans in the Union army.
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.