Stone, "The Declining Prevalence of Anencephalus
and Spina Bifida: Its Nature, Causes and Implications," Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 29:4 (August 1987), 541-49; Elwood and Elwood, Epidemiology, 107-19 (note 15).
In addition, these two populations differ in the rates of anencephalus
, hypoplastic left heart, and single ventricle.
low b,c,e,i,j,k,l,m 0.058 defects chlorination including by-products neural tube defects Nervous system Per 10 [micro]g/L b,c,e,j,k,l,m 0.46 defects TTHM including neural tube defects Nervous system BDCM d,j,k 0.005 defects including neural tube defects Anencephalus
On the basis of the above criteria, 29 malformations had increasing trends, two (anencephalus
and spina bifida) had decreasing trends (Figures 1 and 2), and seven remained stable (Table 1).
Cases (infants or fetuses) had a diagnosis of anencephalus
[International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) (Medicode, Inc.