Anesthetic


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anaesthetic

(US), anesthetic
a substance that causes anaesthesia

Anesthetic

 

a substance that acts selectively on the central nervous system and induces a state of anesthesia.

The meaning of the term “anesthetic” has changed in the course of the development of pharmacology. Anesthetics used to include nervous-system depressants and stimulants, as well as many substances that only indirectly affect the nervous system. From the beginning of anesthetic practice, stimulants, depressants, and various indirectly acting substances were the principal anesthetics. Neurotropic agents with different types of action, for example, analgesic, somnifacient, and tranquilizing, are grouped separately. Application of the term “anesthetic” to denote substances of plant or synthetic origin that are narcotics—morphine, oxycodone, Trimeperidin. for instance—was determined by convention, as was the use of the term “narcotic” to convey the sense of “anesthetic.” The main requirements of an anesthetic are that it have broad action, that is, a significant range between the effective (anesthetic) and toxic doses; that it not produce complications; and that it have no aftereffects.

Anesthetics are classified as either inhalation or noninhalation, depending on the method of administration. Inhalation anesthetics are divided into volatile anesthetics, which include ethers, chloroform, trichloroethylene, halothane, and ethyl chloride, and into gaseous anesthetics, such as nitrous oxide and cyclopropane. Noninhalation anesthetics, for example, hexobarbital, sodium thiopental, and propanilid, are administered intravenously. Narcolan is introduced by rectum.

Often, a combination of anesthetics is used to weaken or completely compensate for any negative properties that one of the ingredients might have when used alone. Surgical procedures that involve certain physiological functions can require a combination of an anesthetic with other types of agents, such as muscle relaxants, antihistamines, cholinergic and adrenergic blocking agents, ganglioplegic agents, neuroleptics, and tranquilizers. A new kind of anesthesia has been developed, neuroleptoanalgesia, in which anesthesia is brought about using neuroleptics and analgesics without the use of anesthetics.

REFERENCE

Zakusov, V. V. Farmakologiia nervnoi sistemy. Leningrad, 1953.

V. V. PARIN

What does it mean when you dream about an anesthetic?

To dream of being anaesthetized may represent the residue of a memory (e.g., from a medical operation). It could also reflect a desire to be relieved of some painful experience—physical, mental, or emotional.

anesthetic

[¦an·əs¦thed·ik]
(pharmacology)
A drug, such as ether, that produces loss of sensibility.
References in periodicals archive ?
Mulroy and other investigators have now reported the significant impact of the route of administration of local anesthetics on an increasing prevalence rates of local anesthetic systemic toxicity reactions.11-14 The prevalence of local anesthetic systemic toxicity in epidural anesthetics ranged from 1.
The anesthetic properties of C[O.sub.2] were used as anesthetic with blood-spotted crabs.
To minimize patients' discomfort, dentists use anesthetics that block the pain, which are administered using needles.
After the administration of local anesthetic (articaine / lidocaine) by either technique, wait of 10 to 15 minutes was observed for induction of anesthesia.
Investigators have shown that warming anesthetic fluid reduces pain upon injection of both nonbuffered and buffered local anesthetics (Ann Emerg Med.
Inhaled anesthetic gases leak from anesthesia machine systems as no system is completely leak-free.
The extended performances reached through this method were useful to evaluate the anesthetic exposure effects on a small number of operators working in surgical theaters.
He came back on day 37 with recurring central epithelial defects about 3.0-3.5mm in diameter, counting fingers from 1 meter in both eyes, and denying any use of topical anesthetic. Same medications were started, and on day 54, the epithelial defects healed.
Gilbert had been treating PE patients with topical anesthetics with modest success.
Anesthesia gas machine require high O2 flows and a lengthy time period to remove most of the vapour before the machine can be used for a patient who cannot tolerate breathing even trace amounts of volatile anesthetic vapour.
Moreover, when used for surgery, nitrous oxide is always combined with other general anesthetic agents.
A prospective controlled trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of an analgesic cream (eutectic mixture of local anesthetics, or EMLA) with a combination of EMLA with hypnosis in the relief of lumbar puncture-induced pain and anxiety in 45 pediatric cancer patients (age 6-16 years).