aneurysm

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aneurysm

(ăn`yo͝orĭzəm), localized dilatation of a blood vessel, particularly an arteryartery,
blood vessel that conveys blood away from the heart. Except for the pulmonary artery, which carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
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, or the heartheart,
muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity, lasting from before birth to the end of life. Anatomy and Function

The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist.
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. Dilatation of an artery, and therefore weakness of that portion of the arterial wall, may be rarely congenital, or it may be caused by syphilissyphilis
, contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum (described by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann in 1905). Syphilis was not widely recognized until an epidemic in Europe at the end of the 15th cent.
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, hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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 (high blood pressure), arteriosclerosisarteriosclerosis
, general term for a condition characterized by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the blood vessels. These changes are frequently accompanied by accumulations inside the vessel walls of lipids, e.g.
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, bacterial and fungal infections, or penetrating injury as from a bullet or knife. An aneurysm may be asymptomatic or it may cause varying symptoms, depending upon its location and size and on whether the expanding mass is pressing on adjacent nerves or vital organs. The weakened arterial walls of an aneurysm are always in danger of sudden rupture, with resulting hemorrhage and death.

Aneurysms occur most commonly in the large arteries; the aortaaorta
, primary artery of the circulatory system in mammals, delivering oxygenated blood to all other arteries except those of the lungs. The human aorta, c.1 in. (2.54 cm) in diameter, originates at the left ventricle of the heart.
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, the largest vessel in the body, is the one most often affected. Ventricular aneurysms of the heart often occur after myocardial infarctionsinfarction,
blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart.
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. Aneurysms also occur in the arteries within the skull and in other areas of the body.

Aneurysms can be detected by echocardiogram, spin echo magnetic resonance imaging scans, coronary arteriograms, and biplane ventriculograms. Treatment, where feasible, may involve surgery to remove the aneurysm or the insertion of coiled wire to close it off. Coiled wire can only be used on aneurysms that are connected to the blood vessel by a narrowed neck. The coiling fills the aneurysm, obstructing the flow of blood into the dilatation, and blood clots form around the wire, preventing the aneurysm from bursting. Surgical excision of the dilated saclike portion of the affected artery sometimes requires the replacement of that portion by a synthetic graft, a section of vessel (made of polymer fiber) that is similar in size.

aneurysm

[′an·yə‚riz·əm]
(medicine)
Localized abnormal dilation of an artery due to weakening of the vessel wall.

aneurysm

, aneurism
a sac formed by abnormal dilation of the weakened wall of a blood vessel
References in periodicals archive ?
Extracranial carotid aneurysms are very rare (8) with a reported incidence of approximately 0.
More and more scientific evidence suggests that an imbalance between proteolytic activity and activity of in the aorta is associated with the formation of abdominal aneurysms.
9) Asymptomatic aneurysms can be managed medically.
This was a retrospective study of all patients with MCA aneurysms who underwent surgical clipping between 1992 and August 2012.
Radovanovic, who joined the faculty of the Division of Neurosurgery at Toronto Western Hospital in January this year: “Understanding the natural history and the biology of aneurysms in Polycystic Kidney Disease is important not only for this specific group of patients but also for the understanding of cerebral aneurysms in general.
Still in relation to the age bracket stricken by aneurysms at this site, the study by Liang et al (4) on patients aged 15 to 18 years showed that posterior circulation aneurysms represented 25% of all aneurysms this group is stricken with (4).
There is also the risk of rupture of aneurysm by trauma to the neck, though arterial aneurysms are more prone to rupture.
In these cases, the DSA findings identified the occluded stumps as aneurysms.
According to the Brain Aneurysm Foundation, brain aneurysms cause the deaths of almost 500,000 people worldwide each year, and half the victims are younger than 50.
It should be mentioned that endovascular embolization of LSA aneurysms with glue was also suggested by several literatures.
Conventional open surgery is appropriate for iliac artery aneurysms with compressive symptoms (neurologic or urologic).