aneurysm

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aneurysm

(ăn`yo͝orĭzəm), localized dilatation of a blood vessel, particularly an arteryartery,
blood vessel that conveys blood away from the heart. Except for the pulmonary artery, which carries deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs, arteries carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
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, or the heartheart,
muscular organ that pumps blood to all parts of the body. The rhythmic beating of the heart is a ceaseless activity, lasting from before birth to the end of life. Anatomy and Function

The human heart is a pear-shaped structure about the size of a fist.
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. Dilatation of an artery, and therefore weakness of that portion of the arterial wall, may be rarely congenital, or it may be caused by syphilissyphilis
, contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum (described by Fritz Schaudinn and Erich Hoffmann in 1905). Syphilis was not widely recognized until an epidemic in Europe at the end of the 15th cent.
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, hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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 (high blood pressure), arteriosclerosisarteriosclerosis
, general term for a condition characterized by thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity of the walls of the blood vessels. These changes are frequently accompanied by accumulations inside the vessel walls of lipids, e.g.
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, bacterial and fungal infections, or penetrating injury as from a bullet or knife. An aneurysm may be asymptomatic or it may cause varying symptoms, depending upon its location and size and on whether the expanding mass is pressing on adjacent nerves or vital organs. The weakened arterial walls of an aneurysm are always in danger of sudden rupture, with resulting hemorrhage and death.

Aneurysms occur most commonly in the large arteries; the aortaaorta
, primary artery of the circulatory system in mammals, delivering oxygenated blood to all other arteries except those of the lungs. The human aorta, c.1 in. (2.54 cm) in diameter, originates at the left ventricle of the heart.
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, the largest vessel in the body, is the one most often affected. Ventricular aneurysms of the heart often occur after myocardial infarctionsinfarction,
blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart.
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. Aneurysms also occur in the arteries within the skull and in other areas of the body.

Aneurysms can be detected by echocardiogram, spin echo magnetic resonance imaging scans, coronary arteriograms, and biplane ventriculograms. Treatment, where feasible, may involve surgery to remove the aneurysm or the insertion of coiled wire to close it off. Coiled wire can only be used on aneurysms that are connected to the blood vessel by a narrowed neck. The coiling fills the aneurysm, obstructing the flow of blood into the dilatation, and blood clots form around the wire, preventing the aneurysm from bursting. Surgical excision of the dilated saclike portion of the affected artery sometimes requires the replacement of that portion by a synthetic graft, a section of vessel (made of polymer fiber) that is similar in size.

aneurysm

[′an·yə‚riz·əm]
(medicine)
Localized abnormal dilation of an artery due to weakening of the vessel wall.

aneurysm

, aneurism
a sac formed by abnormal dilation of the weakened wall of a blood vessel
References in periodicals archive ?
M2 EQUITYBITES-May 21, 2019-Stryker wins US FDA premarket approval for Neuroform Atlas Stent System to treat brain aneurysms
"It's important when we identify aneurysms that we stratify their risk for rupture to determine which ones need to be treated," he said.
The clinical relevance of a portal vein aneurysms is related to its size.
Despite renal artery aneurysms being mostly asymptomatic, some patients still may present with fever, prolonged anemia, ischemia of the ipsilateral limb, hypertension, compression of adjacent organs, deterioration in graft function, and life-threatening bleeding due to rupture.
As the aorta proximal to coarctation is anomalous, including its main branches, aneurysm formation can occur in both subclavic arteries due to prolonged hypertension1 Aorta coarctation is a narrowing of the aorta, which most often occurs just beyond the left subclavian artery2.
Khoula Hospital, represented by the Cerebral Angiography of Radiology Department, has conducted seven surgeries to treat aneurysm using an angiogram.
Open Surgery for Giant Bilateral Internal Iliac Artery Aneurysms with Compression of Neighboring Abdominal Structures: A Case Report.
The Clinical Efficacy and Prognosis of Surgical Timing for Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms. Med Recapit.
Visceral artery aneurysms originate from the celiac artery, the superior mesenteric artery, the inferior mesenteric artery, and the branches of these arteries (5, 6) and are very rare.
Among the 57 cases of patients with mycotic aneurysms caused by Salmonella, most also presented other complications such as hypertension (32/57), diabetes (19/57), atherosclerosis (7/57), hyperlipidemia (2/57), acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (2/57), chronic kidney disease (2/57), smoking, drug abuse, and autoimmune diseases treated by biological agents.
Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of Aortic Aneurysms. Biomed Res Int 2017; 2017: 7268521.
Congenital Sinus of Valsalva aneurysm is a rare congenital cardiac disease.