John XXIII

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Cossa, Baldassare

Cossa, Baldassare (bäldäs-säˈrā kôsˈsä), c.1370–1419, Neapolitan churchman, antipope (1410–15; see Schism, Great) with the name John XXIII. He had a military career before entering the service of the church. He was made a cardinal by Boniface IX (1402) and proved himself able, especially in financial matters. In 1408 he deserted Gregory XII and helped to bring about the Council of Pisa to end the schism between the Roman and the Avignon popes. The council, declaring both Gregory XII and Benedict XIII deposed, set up a third claimant, Alexander V. On Alexander's death a year later, Cardinal Cossa was elected. Of the three rival “popes,” John had by far the greatest following. He immediately sought the aid of Sigismund and helped elect Sigismund Holy Roman emperor. John allied himself with Louis II of Anjou (later king of Naples) to make war on Lancelot of Naples and his ally Gregory XII. An ineffective council at Rome (1412–13) was followed by the Council of Constance (see Constance, Council of), which John convened under pressure from Sigismund. At the opening of the council he reluctantly promised (1415) to abdicate if his rivals would do so. Then, surreptitiously, he fled to the lands of his ally Frederick of Hapsburg. He was forced to return. The council formally deposed him, and he submitted. He was held prisoner in Germany until released by Martin V in 1418; he returned to Italy. He died cardinal bishop of Tusculum. In his lifetime he had a reputation for unscrupulousness and self-aggrandizement.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

John XXIII

 

(Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli). Born Nov. 25, 1881, in Sotto il Monte, Bergamo; died June 3, 1963, in the Vatican. Pope; elected in 1958.

Between 1925 and 1953, John XXIII was the papal nuncio in a number of countries; he served as patriarch of Venice in 1953–58 and held the office of cardinal from 1953. John XXIII introduced new Vatican policies designed to help the Catholic Church adapt to changing world conditions. He advocated peaceful coexistence between states with different social systems and was in favor of disarmament and the peaceful settlement of international disputes. He convened the Second Vatican Council in 1962 in order that the Catholic Church might chart a new course and consolidate its position.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

John XXIII

original name Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. 1881--1963, pope (1958--63). He promoted ecumenism and world peace and summoned the second Vatican Council (1962--65)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli was born in Sotto il Monte (Bergamo) on the 25th October 1881.
On 28th October 1958 the white smoke gave its sign in favor of Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli. After his election John XXIII accepted Giovanna on 8th November.
Marco Roncalli, sobrino nieto de Juan XXIII, periodista y ensayista, edita este volumen con el intercambio epistolar entre Giuseppe de Luca, sacerdote lucano-romano, hombre de estudio y erudicion, Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, papa Juan XXII, y Loris Capovilla, secretario particular de dicho pontifice.
Marco Roncalli cerca, proprio tramite un uso abbondante di lettere e di scritti intimi, di mostrare il percorso intellettuale e spirituale dell'uomo e del sacerdote Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli; e questo, lo fa fin dall'inizio, dalla giovinezza del biografato, e lungo tutta la sua vita.
(8.) This information and the cited text are from Roncalli's introduction, composed in Istanbul in April 1936, to the first published volume: Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, ed., Gli atti della visita apostolica di S.
Intertwined with the colorful guest list of the Pera is an even more riveting roster of Istanbullus: A Gallipoli survivor named Mustafa Kemal, disdained by the Allied Powers but later known to the world as Ataturk, the visionary leader and first president of Turkey; the extremely reluctant Leon Trotsky; and an Italian monsignor who came to Turkey as Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, but a decade after leaving the country acquired a new name: Pope John XXIII.
John XXIII (Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, 1881-1963) is held up by progressive Catholics and the liberal media as a modern pope for having called the Second Vatican Council, which sought to modernize the Church.
Pope John XXIII, born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, was the fourth of fourteen children; he was ordained a priest on August 10, 1904 and served in various posts including appointments as a papal nuncio in France, and a delegate to Bulgaria and Greece.
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli, the future Pope John XXIII, was born to peasants in the northern Italian town of Bergamo in 1881, became a priest, and served in the Italian army during World War I.
25, Born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli to Giovanni Battista and Marianna Giulia Roncalli
Pope Francis may turn out to be the most important pope since Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli entered the world scene in 1958 as Pope John XXIII.
Born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli in 1881 he was the fourth of 14 children born to a poor family.