ACE inhibitor

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ACE inhibitor

(ā'sē'ē`, ās) or

angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

(ăn'jēōtĕn`sĭn), drug used to reduce elevated blood pressure (see hypertensionhypertension
or high blood pressure,
elevated blood pressure resulting from an increase in the amount of blood pumped by the heart or from increased resistance to the flow of blood through the small arterial blood vessels (arterioles).
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), to treat congestive heart failurecongestive heart failure,
inability of the heart to expel sufficient blood to keep pace with the metabolic demands of the body. In the healthy individual the heart can tolerate large increases of workload for a considerable length of time.
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, and to alleviate strain on hearts damaged as a result of a heart attack (see infarctioninfarction,
blockage of blood circulation to a localized area or organ of the body resulting in tissue death. Infarctions commonly occur in the spleen, kidney, lungs, brain, and heart.
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). ACE inhibitors block production of an enzyme that helps convert the protein angiotensin 1 into angiotensin 2, a protein that makes blood vessels constrict and promotes retention of fluid, raising blood pressure. Thus ACE inhibitors act to widen the blood vessels and make it easier for the heart to pump blood through the body. captopril (Capoten), ramipril (Altace), and enalapril (Vasotec) are commonly used ACE inhibitors. Angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), such as losartan (Cozaar) and valsartan (Diovan), reduce hypertension by displacing angiotensin 2 from receptors on the surface of cells. ARBs are used as alternatives to the less expensive ACE inhibitors because they have fewer side effects.
References in periodicals archive ?
Agostoni, "Angioedema associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use: outcome after switching to a different treatment," Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.
Yesil et al., "Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors as a risk factor for contrast-induced nephropathy," Nephron--Clinical Practice, vol.
Hypotensive reactions to white cell-reduced plasma in a patient undergoing angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy.
Cardiorenal protective effects of yearlong antihypertensive therapy with a angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or a calcium channel blocker in spontaneously hypertensive rat.
Examples of such differences that have already been observed in trials include the finding that hypertensive black patients do not respond as well to [beta]-blockers or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Black patients with hepatitic C also have not responded as well to treatment with interferon-a, compared with other racial groups in clinical trials.
"Heart failure treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in hospitalized Medicare patients in 10 states." Arch Intern Med.
Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are effective antihypertensive drugs, but use of ACEIs during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy has been associated with a pattern of defects known as ACEI fetopathy.
As such, it would be prescribed only if symptoms persisted after the use of such drugs as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta blockers, which reduce the risk of hospitalization and death.
The researchers note that the patient was initially treated with diuretics, ?-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Six months later, when he was still symptomatic, the patient was determined to have met the criteria for idiopathic inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy, and initiated treatment with anakinra.
CREDENCE, the first dedicated renal outcomes trial in patients with CKD and T2D on the background of standard of care, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, enrolled approximately 4,400 patients with T2D, estimated glomerular filtration rate >=30 to 300 to <=5,000 mg/g).

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