The relationship between ARC and angiotensin levels, however, remains to be elucidated for patients already on an optimal RAS-blocker therapy, which is known to alter RAS regulation.
The aims of this study were (a) to investigate the impact of contemporary RAS blockade on angiotensin metabolite concentrations; (b) to correlate ARC with angiotensin levels and disease severity; and (c) to assess the feasibility of ARC screening in HFrEF patients receiving optimal medical treatment (OMT) for the identification of heart failure phenotypes with low and high RAS activation, possibly unveiling further therapeutic need.
Evolution of angiotensin II-induced catecholamine release.
Central ventilatory and cardiovascular actions of angiotensin peptides in trout.
Protease then converts the angiotensinogen to an inactive substance, angiotensin I (AI), which is further converted to the vasorelaxant substance, AII, by angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE) produced mostly in the lungs.
These non-ACE pathways may partly explain the aldosterone "escape" phenomenon, i.e., both the angiotensin and aldosterone levels that are initially lowered by ACE inhibition eventually return to the baseline level in the long run.
The familial aggregation of the DN demonstrates the involvement of genetic factors in the pathogenesis of this complication, and available data provide convincing evidence that the angiotensin converting enzyme I/D (AGE I/D) polymorphism is significantly associated with overt nephropathy being the insertion/insertion (II) genotype and low plasma ACE levels protective against the disease both in type I and type II diabetics [17-19].
The current study has extended these observations by characterizing the role of bradykinin and angiotensin peptides in face of increased and decreased dosage of ACE in the pathogenesis of diabetic lesions.
II as a pro-inflammatory mediator," Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, vol.
Key words: air pollutant, angiotensin
II, angiotensin-converting enzyme, copper, ERK, p38, vanadium.
Reassessment of plasma angiotensins
measurement: effects of protease inhibitors and sample handling procedures.
These methods obviously have applications that go well beyond the renin-angiotensin system, but give practical, "real life" examples using areas of angiotensin