Khmer Rouge

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Khmer Rouge

(kəmĕr` ro͞ozh), name given to native Cambodian Communists. Khmer Rouge soldiers, aided by North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops, began a large-scale insurgency against government forces in 1970, quickly gaining control over more than two thirds of the country. The strength of the Khmer Rouge rose dramatically from around 3,000 in 1970 to more than 30,000 in 1973, enabling most of the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong troops to withdraw.

In 1975 the movement, led by Pol PotPol Pot,
1925–98, Cambodian political leader, originally named Saloth Sar. Paris-educated, and a Khmer Communist leader from 1960, he led Khmer Rouge guerrillas against the government of Lon Nol after 1970.
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, overthrew the Cambodian government, establishing "Democratic Kampuchea." The new government carried out a radical program of evacuating cities, closing schools and factories, and herding the population into collective farms. Intellectuals and skilled workers were assassinated, many Cham-Malays were killed, ethnic Vietnamese were deported or killed, and a total of perhaps as many as 1.5 million died, inclusive of starvation and forced marches. In 1979, after increasing tensions with Vietnam, Vietnamese troops invaded, aiding a rival Communist faction to depose the Khmer Rouge government. The Khmer Rouge, however, continued to field an army of c.30,000 near the Thai border and retained UN recognition as the official Cambodian government.

In 1982 the Khmer Rouge formed a coalition with former premier Norodom SihanoukSihanouk, Norodom
, 1922–2012, king of Cambodia (1941–55, 1993–2004), b. Phnom Penh. Sihanouk was educated in Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) and Paris and was elected king by a royal council in 1941.
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 and non-Communist leader Son Sann. Khieu Samphan officially succeeded Pol Pot as head of the Khmer Rouge in 1985, but Pol Pot was believed to remain the real leader. All Cambodian factions signed (1991) a treaty calling for UN-supervised elections and disarming 70% of all forces. In 1992 the United Nations assumed the government's administrative functions, while the Khmer Rouge withdrew from the peace process and resumed fighting. The following year the Khmer Rouge rejected the results of the UN-run elections that brought a coalition government to Cambodia.

The guerrilla force lost about half to three quarters of its strength (3,000–4,000 soldiers) in a mass defection in 1996, and factional fighting within the Khmer Rouge in 1997 led to Pol Pot's ouster, trial, and imprisonment by the Khmer Rouge. The group continued to disintegrate, and factional fighting resumed in 1998. Pol Pot died in April, Khieu Samphan surrendered in Dec., 1998, and by 1999 most members had defected, surrendered, or been captured.

A tribunal consisting of both Cambodian and international judges was established in 2006 to try former Khmer Rouge leaders, but the question of trial procedures and other issues delayed the filing of any charges until mid-2007. The first trial, of the former prison chief known as Duch, began in 2009; he was convicted in 2010. Other former leaders, including Khieu Samphan and Ieng Sary, once foreign minister, were indicted later in 2010, and tried beginning in 2011. Ieng Sary died (2013) before the trial was completed. Khieu Samphan and Nuon Chea, party deputy secretary under Pol Pot, were convicted of crimes against humanity in 2014 and genocide in 2018; Nuon Chea died while appealing his convictions. Additional indictments were resisted by the government of Hun SenHun Sen
, 1952–, Cambodian political leader, premier of Cambodia (1985–93, 1998–; second premier, 1993–98). A member of the Khmer Rouge from 1970, he fled to Vietnam with Heng Samrin and other Communists in 1977.
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, who was himself a member of the Khmer Rouge.

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References in periodicals archive ?
The Angkar would throw their bodies into irrigation ditches.
They describe in explicit detail the murders they committed in the name of Angkar and even reminisce about the cannibalism they practised (eating the gall bladders of their victims).
The Angkar controlled women's and men's sexuality and relationships, forbidding any pre-marital or extra-marital contact with the opposite sex.
Brother Number One, Brother Number Two, etc.), and shrouded the regime itself in mystery by referring to itself as Angkar Padevoat, or Revolutionary Organization (Chandler 1991: 2; Tyner: 141-43).
(18.) Angkar is Khmer for "organization." The term was commonly used to refer to the Khmer Rouge regime.
Intense indoctrination stressed the importance of the Khmer Rouge, often referred to as 'Angkar padevat' ('revolutionary organisation') or more simply the 'Angkar', over the individual.
From this point, Kiernan tell, us, piece by horrible piece, what happened to these people and to the rural population at the hands of Angkar Loeu--the "High Organization." To keep the population calm, the Khmer Rouge said the swift evacuation was necessary because the enemy was going to bomb the cities and towns if people stayed bunched up in them.
The Khmer Rouge brought a new language of euphemisms for atrocity and their omnipresent Angkar or "organization" in which no explanations were given for policy - just that "Angkar orders." For Angkar, people were merely opakar or instruments and when their loyalty was suspected, brutal reeducation of execution followed.(21) Implementing these measures many Cambodians found, as did Dith Pran, that the most brutal of the Khmer Rouge were those in their early teens.
However, he kept his fury silent to avoid suspicion from the Khmer Rouge, who referred to themselves as Angkar - 'The Organisation'.
I agree with LeVine that the word angkar (literally 'organisation') came to be almost personified in DK usage and was used metonymically to refer, not just to the Party organisation but different, sometimes intangible aspects of it.
The Military Police's justice department director To Dy said Tep Pech, also known as Tep Visal - who is the director of NGO Angkar Karpear Parethan noeng Akphivat (Development and Environment Protection) - was arrested on Friday following a complaint filed by his victims last month.
The Khmer Rouge regime of 1975-79, however, promoted communist gender equality, which brought new influences to bear upon experiences and perceptions of womanhood and made children the property of 'Angkar', the Party (as represented by both women and men), rather than of their parents.