Anglo-Burmese Wars

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Anglo-Burmese Wars

 

1824–26, 1852, and 1885, predatory wars instigated by England and aimed at the colonial enslavement of Burma.

The British East India Company started the first Anglo-Burmese War (1824–26) on Mar. 5, 1824. English forces met stubborn resistance. The Burmese army, led by Maha Bandula, inflicted serious damage to the English forces. After Maha Bandula’s death in April 1825 the English army was able, at the expense of huge losses, to advance almost to the Burmese capital of Ava. England bound Burma to a treaty, signed in Yandabo on Feb. 24, 1826. Burma lost Arakan, Tenasserim, and the Indian principalities of Assam and Manipur, which it had conquered at the beginning of the 19th century. Burma was obligated to pay an indemnity of <£ 1 million, to accept an English resident, and to conclude a trade agreement with England. The resistance of the Burmese people forced the East India Company to end military actions without completing the conquest of all of Burma.

The East India Company initiated the second Anglo-Burmese War (1852) on Apr. 5, 1852, with the occupation of the area of Pegu. Burma suffered defeat in this war owing in part to the uprisings, provoked by England, of the Mons, Shans, and Karens. On Dec. 20, 1852, the East India Company proclaimed the annexation of Pegu.

The third Anglo-Burmese War (1885) completed the subjugation of Burma. Exploiting an incident between an English trading company and the Burmese government, England presented an ultimatum to the Burmese king Thibau in October 1885 demanding control over Burma’s foreign relations. At the same time, English troops were sent to Burma. Military actions began on Nov. 14, 1885. The regular Burmese army was unable to resist the English army, which had numerical superiority, and it capitulated. On Jan. 1, 1886, a manifesto announcing the annexation of Burma to the possessions of the English throne was published. Burma became a separate province of India. The partisan movement which unfolded in Burma was not broken by the English colonialists until 1890.

REFERENCES

Marx, K. “Voina v Birme.” In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 9.
Marx, K. “Polozhenie del na kontinente i v Anglii.” Ibid.
Banerjee, A. C. Annexation of Burma. Calcutta, 1944.

A. P. MURANOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
They have been unable to prove their right to live there since they cannot fulfil the stipulations of a 1982 law that states they must prove they lived in Myanmar prior to 1823 -- before the Anglo-Burmese War -- to obtain nationality.
Thibaw's defeat in the Third Anglo-Burmese War marked the end of centuries of royal rule, and the country also known as Burma remained part of the British empire until 1948.
The Third Anglo-Burmese War (1890) ended after only a few weeks, although resistance continued among the northern tribes until the British resorted to the destruction of villages and crops to defeat the last holdouts.
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The British felt that Burma threatened the security of India, and after driving the Burmese out of eastern India in 1824-1826, they seized the rest of lower Burma in the second Anglo-Burmese War in 1852-53.
After all, whether he intended to or not, when Judson moved south into British territory after the first Anglo-Burmese War, "he followed the flag" of imperialism.
It even served them well later in Ava because this same government official was there when the Anglo-Burmese war broke out.
The Anglo-Burmese war saw the British taking control of the state.