Anglo-Mysore Wars

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Anglo-Mysore Wars

 

waged in the last four decades of the 18th century by the British East India Company to conquer the principality of Mysore (India).

The first Anglo-Mysore War (1767–69) began with an invasion of Mysore by the troops of the company and its protege Nawab of Karnata. The Mysore army was led by their ruler, Haidar Ali, who successfully took the English army from the rear. By the peace treaty of Madras (1769) both parties renounced the territories they had conquered from each other and concluded a defensive alliance.

In the second Anglo-Mysore War (1780–84), Mysore was allied with Hyderabad and the Maratha. From 1782, after the death of Haidar Ali, the Mysore army was led by his son, Tipu Sultan. The successes of Tipu Sultan, who had been aided by the French, came to nothing because of the betrayal of his allies and the conclusion of the Treaty of Versailles (1783) between England and France. By the peace treaty of Mangalore, the enemies returned the lands and prisoners they had captured.

In the third Anglo-Mysore War (1790–92), the English succeeded in drawing the troops of the Maratha and of Hyderabad into the battle against Mysore. However, the situation of the British troops was so serious that in 1791 Governor-General Cornwallis came from Bengali to lead them. He managed to mobilize all the English forces and move them on Seringapatam, the capital of Mysore. Tipu Sultan was forced to sign the Seringapatam peace treaty of 1792 and surrender almost half his principality to the allies as well as paying an indemnity. In the fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), Seringapatam was taken by storm and Tipu Sultan killed. Mysore was turned into a vassal principality of the company.

REFERENCES

Antonova, K. A. Angliiskoe zavoevanie Indii v XVIII veke. Moscow, 1958.
Khan, M. H. History of Tipu Sultan. Calcutta, 1951.

K. A. ANTONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
The Congress government led by former chief minister Siddaramaiah was of the view that the 18th-century ruler of Mysore was a "freedom fighter" as he killed in the fourth Anglo-Mysore war and thus his birth anniversary should be celebrated while the BJP claimed that the ruler was against Kannada language and an "anti-Hindu".
The ruler of the south Indian kingdom of Mysore embraced martyrdom in the fourth Anglo-Mysore war while defending the Srirangapatna fort.
Sultan valiantly fought in the fourth Anglo-Mysore War but was killed in the siege of Srirangapatna after French military advisers told him to escape via secret passages, but he famously replied: "It is better to live one day as a tiger than a thousand years as a sheep".
The gun, four swords, a shield, a betel nut box and gold seal ring were brought to Britain by Major Thomas Hart after the Fourth Anglo-Mysore war. They were passed down through generations of his family and now belong to a couple who kept them in the attic of their home in Berkshire.
The powerful ruler was killed in the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in 1799 after a string of victories in battle against the British East India Company.
The Congress government of Karnataka had started celebrating Tipu Sultan's birth anniversary in 2015 terming the 18th century ruler of Mysore a freedom fighter, who was killed in the 4th Anglo-Mysore war. The BJP, RSS and others, however, call him a brutal king who persecuted Hindus and Christians in large numbers, especially those who refused to convert to Islam.
The tiger was the emblem of Tipu Sultan of Mysore, the implacable enemy of the British East India Company, who famously decreed: 'Better to live one day as a tiger than a thousand years as a sheep.' Dalhousie had served under Wellington who defeated Tipu in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War of 1799, when the sultan died defending his capital.
to the votaries of the VHP, BJP and RSS, during the Third Anglo-Mysore War, in 1791, Parashuram Bhau ravaged Mysore and damaged the very seat of Hinduism - the Shankaracharya's (Shrirangpatanam) temple, also known as the matha of Srinegri Shankaracharya - killing and wounding many, and plundering the monastery of all its valuable possessions.
But such unstinted rejoicing over a military victory in India, gained at the expense of an Indian enemy, not a European one, had no precedent." (2) He goes on to add this public reception of the Anglo-Mysore war "suggests that pride in British rule in India as well as pride in British military successes there had become widely accepted as elements of British nationalism." (3)
The Third Anglo-Mysore War of the British against Tipu Sultan was at its height during Jones's last few years in Basra.
Tipu was killed in the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in 1799 at Srirangapatna near Mysore after successive victories in battles against the British colonialists.
Descendants of the immediate family members of sultan were exiled to Kolkata, erstwhile Calcutta, by the British after the warrior was killed during the fourth Anglo-Mysore war of May, 1799.