Anglo-Mysore Wars


Also found in: Wikipedia.

Anglo-Mysore Wars

 

waged in the last four decades of the 18th century by the British East India Company to conquer the principality of Mysore (India).

The first Anglo-Mysore War (1767–69) began with an invasion of Mysore by the troops of the company and its protege Nawab of Karnata. The Mysore army was led by their ruler, Haidar Ali, who successfully took the English army from the rear. By the peace treaty of Madras (1769) both parties renounced the territories they had conquered from each other and concluded a defensive alliance.

In the second Anglo-Mysore War (1780–84), Mysore was allied with Hyderabad and the Maratha. From 1782, after the death of Haidar Ali, the Mysore army was led by his son, Tipu Sultan. The successes of Tipu Sultan, who had been aided by the French, came to nothing because of the betrayal of his allies and the conclusion of the Treaty of Versailles (1783) between England and France. By the peace treaty of Mangalore, the enemies returned the lands and prisoners they had captured.

In the third Anglo-Mysore War (1790–92), the English succeeded in drawing the troops of the Maratha and of Hyderabad into the battle against Mysore. However, the situation of the British troops was so serious that in 1791 Governor-General Cornwallis came from Bengali to lead them. He managed to mobilize all the English forces and move them on Seringapatam, the capital of Mysore. Tipu Sultan was forced to sign the Seringapatam peace treaty of 1792 and surrender almost half his principality to the allies as well as paying an indemnity. In the fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), Seringapatam was taken by storm and Tipu Sultan killed. Mysore was turned into a vassal principality of the company.

REFERENCES

Antonova, K. A. Angliiskoe zavoevanie Indii v XVIII veke. Moscow, 1958.
Khan, M. H. History of Tipu Sultan. Calcutta, 1951.

K. A. ANTONOVA

References in periodicals archive ?
He deployed the rockets against advances of British forces and their allies during the Anglo-Mysore Wars, including the Battle of Pollilur and Siege of Seringapatam.
During the Anglo-Mysore wars of the late 1700s, Mysorean rockets were used by Tipu to great effect.
The powerful ruler was killed in the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in 1799 after a string of victories in battle against the British East India Company.
The Hindu fundamentalists in general believe that Tipu (1750-1799), who, in his rather short life waged three of the four Anglo-Mysore wars in the last three decades of 18th century is a secular man rather kindly disposed to the Hindus.
He deployed rockets against advances of the British forces and their allies during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. The rockets used during the Battle of Pollilur in 1780 and Siege of Seringapatam in 1799 were said to be more advanced than the British had previously seen.
Tipu fought three wars with the British: the second, third and fourth Anglo-Mysore wars. The second and third, he won.
The Congress government of Karnataka had started celebrating Tipu Sultan's birth anniversary in 2015 terming the 18th century ruler of Mysore a freedom fighter, who was killed in the 4th Anglo-Mysore war. The BJP, RSS and others, however, call him a brutal king who persecuted Hindus and Christians in large numbers, especially those who refused to convert to Islam.
The Anglo-Mysore Wars were fought over a period of more than a quarter of a century (1767-99).
None of these works, however, give us a coherent picture of the Anglo-French naval rivalry's overall significance upon the Anglo-Mysore Wars. More important, they do not make any attempt to investigate why and how the land campaign forced the British to rely so heavily upon naval power.
Sea power played a decisive role in the Anglo-Mysore Wars because it was instrumental in enabling the British ground forces to maintain their presence in the field against the Mysorean army.
However, Marshall offers no analysis of the remarkable connections and contrasts between the American War and the Anglo-Mysore Wars. The nature and the conduct of these two wars did play a pivotal role in determining the success or failure of ongoing efforts at British imperial consolidation.
The Anglo-Mysore wars lasted until 1799, costing many thousands of lives and leaving the British in control of most of the southern subcontinent.