Estrens is derived from Old Norse strengr 'cable, anchor cable' and is the first of numerous terms that Anglo-Norman French inherited from the "Northmen" who settled the future Normandy.
The term uitages, with a variety of spellings, is always found in the plural in Anglo-Norman French. The word seems to have "morphed" into upties in Middle English.
The presence of some 20 Norse-derived terms in the Anglo-Norman French of the passage studied above is ample proof of such transfers in the centuries following the Norsemen's occupation and settlement of Neustria.
By the later twelfth century, and throughout the thirteenth, such works were also translated into Anglo-Norman French
, which was standardised in its written form, and which could be read by educated members of the laity.