1928, 1946, and 1948. The 1928 treaty was concluded on February 20, in Jerusalem. It gave certain legislative and executive authority to the emir and at the same time strengthened British control over Transjordan’s foreign, financial, and concessions policy. The treaty also gave Great Britain the right to maintain a certain number of troops in the country and to proclaim martial law. In 1934 a paragraph was included in the agreement allowing Transjordan to have consul representation in Arab countries. On June 19,1941, an article was added allowing Britain to maintain, raise, and control in Transjordan “that number of troops which the British government deems necessary for the country’s defense.”
The 1946 treaty of friendship and alliance was signed on March 22, in London. A 25-year treaty, it replaced the 1928 treaty. It formally abolished the British mandate over Transjordan and gave the country independence. This treaty signaled Britain’s transition to hidden forms of colonial rule. It established “cooperation” between both governments in foreign policy and “mutual aid” during wartime. Britain received the right to maintain troops already stationed when the treaty was signed and to introduce others in any place agreed upon by both sides. British armed forces maintained judicial immunity, and British advisers and experts remained attached to the Transjordanian government. The treaty lost its force after the signing of a new Anglo-Transjordanian (Jordanian) treaty in 1948.
The 1948 treaty of alliance, signed on Mar. 15, in Amman, was for a period of 20 years. It continued Jordan’s dependency on Britain. Bases were designated for British troops in Amman and Al Mafraq; Britain retained the right to introduce its troops anywhere in Jordan in the event of war or the threat of war and the right of free passage of British troops through the country’s territory. The treaty envisioned the creation of a permanent Anglo-Jordanian council of defense. The 1948 treaty was abrogated on Mar. 14, 1957, by the government of Nabulsi, who came to power as a result of a popular uprising.
PUBLICATIONSUnited Nations: Treaty Series, vol. 6. [Lausanne,] 1946. Page 143.
Diplomacy in the Near and Middle East: A Documentary Record, 1914–1956, vol. 2. Edited by J. C. Hurewitz. Princeton, 1956. Pages 156–59, 296.
L. N. KOTLOV