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, Anhwei
a province of E China, crossed by the Yangtze River. Capital: Hefei. Pop.: 64 100 000 (2003 est.). Area: 139 860 sq. km (54 000 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a province in eastern China in the lower reaches of the Ch’ang Chiang (Yangtze River). It has an area of 139,900 sq km and a population of 33,560,000 as of 1957. The province of Anhwei was formed in the second half of the 17th century, after the conquest of China by the Manchurians, by merging the districts of An-ch’ing and Hweichow. It derives its name from the first syllables of the names of these districts. The administrative center is Ho-fei. The northern part of Anhwei, on the left bank of the Ch’ang Chiang, lies within the boundaries of the North China Plain. Its relief is that of a flat alluvial depression with a large number of rivers (basins of the Ch’ang Chiang and Huai Ho) and lakes (Ch’ao Hu, Pai Hu, and others). In the western and southern parts are heavily fractured mountains of medium height with a maximum height of more than 1,800 meters, with many short ridges (Ta-pei Shan, Huang Shan, Yü-ling Shan), and T’ien-mu Shan) and intra-mountain hollows and valleys. The climate is subtropical and monsoonal. The average temperature in January ranges from 0° to 4°C and in July from 24° to 28°C. Precipitation ranges from 600 to 1,500 mm annually, with most of it falling in the summer.

The forests of Anhwei are pine and broad-leaved; they have mostly been cut down. The deforested, fertile plain of chiefly carbonated alluvial soils, almost completely cultivated, is subject to flooding by the Huai Ho. In the years of the people’s rule, the task of curbing the Huai Ho has been fundamentally achieved by the building of reservoirs: Fo-tzu-ling Shui-K’u on the P’i Ho, Mei-shan on the Shih Ho, and others. Anhwei is a region of mixed farming. The crops cultivated are rice (more than half the total food crop), wheat, corn, millet, and others. In the irrigated areas between the Huai Ho and the Ch’ang Chiang, rice and wheat alternate in a rotation of crops. The industrial crops are rape, ramie, tobacco, soybeans, cotton, and, in the hills, tea shrubs. Anhwei is third among the country’s provinces in the harvesting of tea, tobacco, and rice. Hog breeding is well developed, and work animals are mostly donkeys. Fish are bred in lakes and ponds. Forestry is also practiced. Anhwei is a substantial supplier of cork. The Huai-nan coal basin is in Anhwei, and there is mining of iron ore (in T’ang-T’u), copper (in T’ung-Ling), alum, sulfur, and phosphorite. Close to the city of T’ang-T’u is the Ma-an Shan steel plant. There is a shipyard at Wu-hu, and the cities of Ho-fei and Pang-fou have agricultural machinery and other metalworking plants. Flour mills, factories for rice processing, vegetable oil, tobacco, and tea, and paper and cotton mills are found throughout the province. There are large cotton mills in Ho-fei. The chief ports are Wu-hu and Yü-ch’i-K’ou (which ships coal) on the Ch’ang Chiang, and Pang-fou on the Huai Ho.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The evidence is based on the writings of participants and later imperial histories Table 3 China's population by province, 1819-1953 (million) 1819 1893 1953 Provinces most affected by 153.9 101.8 145.3 Taiping rebellion (a) Provinces affected by Muslim 41.3 26.8 43.1 rebellions (b) Ten Other Provinces of China 175.6 240.9 338.6 Proper (c) Three Manchurian Provinces (d) 2.0 5.4 41.7 Sinkiang, Mongolia, Tibet, 6.4 11.8 14.0 Ningsia, Tsinghai Total 379.4 386.7 582.7 (a.) Anhwei, Chekiang, Hupei, Kiangsi, Kiangsu; (b.) Kansu, Shensi, Shansi; (c.) Fukien, Honan, Hopei, Hunan, Kwangsi, Kwangtung, Kweichow, Shantung, Szechwan and Yunnan; (d.) Heilungkiang, Kirin, Liaoning.
This fu was occasioned by sight of the devastated territory of Ch'iao [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] (present-day Po [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII] district in extreme northern Anhwei), the official place of registration for the Ts'ao family for three generations--that is to say, their ku-hsiang [CHINESE CHARACTERS NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII].
He received a law degree from National Anhwei University in China in 1944.
Born into a prosperous family about 1490; he received a good education and obtained his doctorate degree in the civil service examinations (1517); following distinguished service as a civil and military administrator, he was appointed supreme commander of Nan Chihli (Kiangsu [Jiangsu], Anhwei [Anhui], Chekiang [Zhejiang]; and Fukien [Fujian] provinces in southeast China), an area much troubled by pirate raids; personally led an ambush of a large pirate force at Wang-chiang-ching in Chekiang (1555), routing them, and capturing 1,900, all of whom were beheaded; the main body escaped, and for this reason, and possibly because he had not been sufficiently deferential to the army inspector general the previous year, he was dismissed from his posts, arrested, tried, and executed.
Most interesting is Jami's comparison between the mathematical technicians who worked in court bureaus and the circles of intellectuals - mostly in Kiangnan and Anhwei - who most keenly incorporated mathematics in their private scholarship.