(redirected from Anhydrous ethanol)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.


(ĕth`ənōl') or

ethyl alcohol,

CH3CH2OH, a colorless liquid with characteristic odor and taste; commonly called grain alcohol or simply alcoholalcohol,
any of a class of organic compounds with the general formula R-OH, where R represents an alkyl group made up of carbon and hydrogen in various proportions and -OH represents one or more hydroxyl groups.
..... Click the link for more information.


Ethanol is a monohydric primary alcohol. It melts at −117.3°C; and boils at 78.5°C;. It is miscible (i.e., mixes without separation) with water in all proportions and is separated from water only with difficulty; ethanol that is completely free of water is called absolute ethanol. Ethanol forms a constant-boiling mixture, or azeotrope, with water that contains 95% ethanol and 5% water and that boils at 78.15°C;; since the boiling point of this binary azeotrope is below that of pure ethanol, absolute ethanol cannot be obtained by simple distillation. However, if benzene is added to 95% ethanol, a ternary azeotrope of benzene, ethanol, and water, with boiling point 64.9°C;, can form; since the proportion of water to ethanol in this azeotrope is greater than that in 95% ethanol, the water can be removed from 95% ethanol by adding benzene and distilling off this azeotrope. Because small amounts of benzene may remain, absolute ethanol prepared by this process is poisonous.

Ethanol burns in air with a blue flame, forming carbon dioxide and water. It reacts with active metals to form the metal ethoxide and hydrogen, e.g., with sodium it forms sodium ethoxide. It reacts with certain acids to form esters, e.g., with acetic acid it forms ethyl acetate. It can be oxidized to form acetic acid and acetaldehyde. It can be dehydrated to form diethyl ether or, at higher temperatures, ethylene.


Ethanol is the alcohol of beer, wines, and liquors. It can be prepared by the fermentation of sugar (e.g., from molasses), which requires an enzyme catalyst that is present in yeast; or it can be prepared by the fermentation of starch (e.g., from corn, rice, rye, or potatoes), which requires, in addition to the yeast enzyme, an enzyme present in an extract of malt. The concentration of ethanol obtained by fermentation is limited to about 10% (20 proof) since at higher concentrations ethanol inhibits the catalytic effect of the yeast enzyme. (The proof concentration of an alcoholic beverage is numerically double the percentage concentration.) For nonbeverage uses ethanol is more commonly prepared by passing ethylene gas at high pressure into concentrated sulfuric or phosphoric acid to form the corresponding ester; the acid-ester mixture is diluted with water and heated, forming ethanol by hydrolysis, and the alcohol is then removed from the mixture by distillation, usually with steam.


Ethanol is used extensively as a solvent in the manufacture of varnishes and perfumes; as a preservative for biological specimens; in the preparation of essences and flavorings; in many medicines and drugs; as a disinfectant and in tinctures (e.g., tincture of iodine); and as a fuel and gasoline additive (see gasoholgasohol,
a gasoline extender made from a mixture of gasoline (90%) and ethanol (10%; often obtained by fermenting agricultural crops or crop wastes) or gasoline (97%) and methanol, or wood alcohol (3%).
..... Click the link for more information.
). Many U.S. automobiles manufactured since 1998 have been equipped to enable them to run on either gasoline or E85, a mixture of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. E85, however, is not yet widely available. Denatured, or industrial, alcohol is ethanol to which poisonous or nauseating substances have been added to prevent its use as a beverage; a beverage tax is not charged on such alcohol, so its cost is quite low. Medically, ethanol is a soporific, i.e., sleep-producing; although it is less toxic than the other alcohols, death usually occurs if the concentration of ethanol in the bloodstream exceeds about 5%. Behavioral changes, impairment of vision, or unconsciousness occur at lower concentrations. See alcoholismalcoholism,
disease characterized by impaired control over the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Alcoholism is a serious problem worldwide; in the United States the wide availability of alcoholic beverages makes alcohol the most accessible drug, and alcoholism is the most
..... Click the link for more information.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


(organic chemistry)
C2H5OH A colorless liquid, miscible with water, boiling point 78.32°C; used as a reagent and solvent. Also known as ethyl alcohol; grain alcohol.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
The products were collected and washed three times with anhydrous ethanol and dried in a vacuum drying chamber for 24 h to obtain P(AA-AM-[C.sub.18]DMAAC) @Si[O.sub.2] pellets.
Engine characteristics Engine model Ricardo Hydra Camless Two/four-strokes Displaced volume 350 [cm.sup.3] Bore 81.6 mm Stroke 66.9 mm Compression ratio 11.8:1 Combustion chamber Four valves pent-roof with central spark plug Fuel Anhydrous ethanol (E100) Port fuel injector Twin spray Bosch EV 14
The worn specimen was successively dipped into kerosene, acetone, anhydrous ethanol, and distilled water to remove excess oil.
5 ml 7 mmol / L of ABTS solution and 5 ml of 2.45 mmol / l [K.sub.2][S.sub.2][O.sub.8] solution to avoid light reaction 12 h to ABTS + using liquid, the use of liquid a day ahead of time to prepare, and must use the same day, before use with anhydrous ethanol dilution to ceiling light value in 732 nm 0.70 + 0.02.
In the present study, W1 paper was washed with anhydrous ethanol, and the behavior of the radiochemical species changed slightly, showing less dispersion of [[[sup.99m]Tc[(MIBI).sub.6]].sup.+] in relation to the front and of [sup.99m]Tc[O.sub.4.sup.-] in relation to the origin compared to normal W1 paper, as presented in Figure 4.
Half dye S11 (1.54 mmol, 0.92 g) was dissolved in anhydrous ethanol (40 mL).
Net revenue from hydrous ethanol sales came in at BRL 45 million, down 3.9% on the year, while anhydrous ethanol registered a hike of 41.5%, generating revenue of BRL 59.1 million, Sao Martinho said.
Panama's Biofuels Act provides that from April 2013 2% anhydrous ethanol will be incorporated into vehicle fuel, it was reported May 28, 2012.
Anhydrous ethanol can be blended with gasoline (petrol) in various ratios for use in unmodified gasoline engines; the most common blend of bioethanol with petrol (gasoline) 10% of ethanol to 90% of gasoline (called E10) (Demirbas, 2008; Balat & Balat, 2009).
We also determined levels of oil and moisture from other oilseeds: ouricuri, babassu, castanets, macauba, passion fruit and pinecone, using anhydrous ethanol (Table 4).
Another reaction could be for the government to reduce the amount of anhydrous ethanol that is blended into motor fuel.
Anhydrous ethanol is used in parts of Europe, the USA, and Australia.