75) A broad slice of Iranian society from the elite intellectuals to ordinary villagers formed anjoman to serve as alternative centers of political power.
For example, freedom of the press excluded "heretical books and matters hurtful to the lucid religion" (106) and freedom of Association permitted only the formation of anjoman that were "not productive of mischief to Religion or the State.
203) In addition to spearheading demonstrations, the pishevaran were also active on a grass roots level setting up and supporting the radical anjoman that championed the cause of urban wage earners and peasants.
The city's main civic association, the Anjoman-e Tabriz reported in its own journal, Anjoman, that "a number of brave women in disguise .
316) These semi-secret societies functioned as women's first expression of citizenship and provided a forum for broadening their grassroots drive for education into a campaign for gender equality/17 Conservative members of the Ulama and other reactionary groups immediately declared their opposition to women's anjoman and argued that the Majlis should ban these associations.
The Women's Freedom Society (Anjomane Azadi-ye Zanan), a liberal anjoman formed in 1907, admitted both men and women (although only women were permitted to lecture) and was committed "solely [to] the status and problems of the country's women.
Women's publications worked in concert with the anjoman to fight for women's rights.
Women and their supporters in the Majlis were able to resist pressure from the Ulama and their conservative allies in parliament to outlaw women's anjoman, (337) and they even found a Majlis representative to champion their cause for the franchise.
7) This system included "secret societies, religious brotherhoods, political cliques, coffee and tea house meetings, royal khalvats, ritualistic religious dastes, meetings of extended families, government anjoman
, and bureaucratic factions and fraktions.
Intraelite rivalries in the Majles (assembly) and among the anjomans
(councils) distracted and divided the intelligentsia's attention, eventually draining the constitutional revolution of its initiative, energy, and vision.