In Pakistan, the prevalence of PAD in patients with Type-2 diabetes was 31.6%.3 While, the prevalence of PAD in American and Asian diabetic population was also estimated to be 9.5% and 3.2-11.7%, respectivey.1 For screening PAD, the ankle-brachial index
(ABI) has been recognized as an accurate and relia-ble marker.4
Caption: PAD is diagnosed with an ankle-brachial index
Current utility of the ankle-brachial index
(ABI) in general practice: implications for its use in cardiovascular disease screening.
Sensitivity and specificity of the ankle-brachial index
to predict future cardiovascular outcomes.
Amoah, "Body composition and ankle-brachial index
in Ghanaians with asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in a tertiary hospital," BMC Obesity, vol.
Although the patient experienced unilateral symptoms, a bilateral diminished blood flow was found after exercise, as shown by reduced ankle-brachial index
, with tendency towards worse flow at the symptomatic side.
Liao, "Glycated haemoglobin, ankle-brachial index
, radial pulse spectrum and risk of coronary artery diseases with and without the angina symptoms in type 2 diabetic patients,", in Proceedings of International Diabetes Federation Congress, Kuala Lumpur Convention Centre (KLCC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2018.
Associations of borderline and low normal ankle-brachial index
values with functional decline at 5-year follow-up: The WALCS (Walking and Leg Circulation Study).
New guidelines from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology recommend that anyone with PAD symptoms be screened using the ankle-brachial index
. This test compares blood pressure in your ankles to the pressure in your arms--the ankle pressure should be greater than or equal to the arm pressure.
In a meta analysis by Fowkes et al., addition of ankle-brachial index
(ABI) to Framingham Risk Score improved accuracy of CV risk prediction beyond the Framingham Risk Score (5).
Zhao et al., "Predictive value of ankle-brachial index
and blood glucose on the outcomes of six-year all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality in a Chinese population of type 2 diabetes patients," International Angiology, vol.
The ankle-brachial index
(ABI) was calculated as a measure of peripheral arterial obstructive disease and as a biomarker associated with mortality risk according to recent guidelines [21, 22].