Anna Akhmatova

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Akhmatova, Anna

(än`nə əkhmä`təvə), pseud. of

Anna Andreyevna Gorenko

(əndrā`əvnə gôryĕng`kô), 1888–1966, Russian poet of the AcmeistAcmeists
, school of Russian poets started in 1912 by Sergei M. Gorodetsky and Nikolai Stepanovich Gumilev as a reaction against the mysticism of the symbolists. The school aspired to concreteness of imagery and clarity of expression.
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 school. Her brief lyrics, simply and musically written in the tradition of PushkinPushkin, Aleksandr Sergeyevich
, 1799–1837, Russian poet and prose writer, among the foremost figures in Russian literature. He was born in Moscow of an old noble family; his mother's grandfather was Abram Hannibal, the black general of Peter the Great.
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, attained great popularity. Her themes were personal, emotional, and often ironic. Among her most popular volumes are Chiotki [the rosary] (1914) and Iva [the willow tree] (1940). She was married to the Acmeist poet GumilevGumilev, Nikolai Stepanovich
, 1886–1921, Russian poet. With his wife, the poet Anna Akhmatova, and Gorodetsky Gumilev, he founded the Acmeist school of poetry in 1912.
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 until 1918. Akhmatova remained silent for two decades. She began publishing again at the outbreak of World War II, after which her writings regained popularity. A courageous critic of Stalinism with a large underground following, she was harshly denounced by the Soviet regime in 1946 and 1957 for "bourgeois decadence."


See her Selected Poems (tr. 1969), Poems of Akhmatova (tr. 1973), and The Complete Poems of Anna Akhmatova (1990, in Russian and English translation); her autobiographical writings in My Half Century: Selected Prose (1992), ed. by R. Meyer; biographies by A. Haight (1976, repr. 1990), R. Reeder (1995) and E. Feinstein (2006); study by S. N. Driver (1972).

Akhmatova, Anna Andreevna


(pseudonym of A. A. Gorenko). Born June 11 (23), 1889, in Odessa; died Mar. 5, 1966, in Domodedovo, Moscow Oblast; buried in Leningrad. Soviet Russian poet.

Akhmatova was born into the family of a naval officer. She studied at the Women’s College in Kiev and at the law department of the University of Kiev. From 1910 on, she lived mainly in St. Petersburg. In 1912, Akhmatova’s first book of poems, Evening, was published; it was followed by the collections The Rosary (1914), The White Flock (1917), Plaintain (1921), Anno Domini MCMXXl (1922), and others. Akhmatova was a member of the Acmeist group. In contrast to the symbolists, with their attraction to otherworldly, vague elements, the lyric poetry of Akhmatova was based on real life, drawing motifs of “great earthly love” from it. The principle of contrast is a distinguishing trait of her poetry; melancholic, tragic notes alternate with light, jubilant ones.

After the October Revolution, though Akhmatova was far removed from revolutionary activity, she nonetheless sharply condemned the White émigrés, people who had broken with their motherland (“I am not with those who have forsaken the land . . .”). In the course of a number of years, with difficulties and contradictions, new traits formed in Akhmatova’s creative work; she transcended the enclosed world of refined, aesthetic experiences. Beginning in the 1930’s, Akhmatova’s poetic range widened somewhat; themes of the motherland sounded more strongly, as well as the vocation of the poet (“Mayakovsky in 1913,” “Dante,” and the cycle Secrets of the Craft). A stream of historicism appeared in her creative work, a sarcastic farewell to the prerevolutionary epoch—for example, “At the Smolensk Cemetery,” “Prehistory,” “Ode to Tsarskoe Selo,” and “St. Petersburg in 1913.” During the Great Patriotic War patriotic verses stand out in Akhmatova’s poetry (for example, “The Oath” and “Courage”). Motifs of blood unity with the country sounded in her lyric cycles

The Moon at Its Zenith and From an Airplane. The peak of Akhmatova’s creative work is the large-scale, lyric-epic Poem Without a Hero (1940–62). The tragic plot of a young poet’s suicide alternates with the theme of the oncoming destruction of the old world; this poem is marked by a richness of images, precise quality of words, rhythm, and euphony. On the whole, Akhmatova’s poetry is characterized by a classical simplicity and clarity of style, by con-creteness and “substantiveness” in the structure of the images, and by an elevated lyric quality and melodiousness. Akhmatova translated Eastern, Western European, Jewish, and Latvian poets. Her works on the creative art of A. S. Pushkin are marked by refinement of analysis. Akhmatova’s poems have been translated into many languages.


Iz shesti knig. Leningrad, 1940.
Stikhotvoreniia (1909–1960). [Afterword by A. Surkov.] Moscow, 1961.
Beg vremeni: Stikhotvoreniia, 1909–1965. Moscow-Leningrad, 1965.
Golosa poetov: Stikhi zarubezhnykh poetov ν perevodakh Anny Akhmatovoi. [Foreword by A. Tarkovskii.] Moscow, 1965.
Stikhotvoreniia. Moscow, 1967.
“Stikhi raznykh let.” [Edited by V. Zhirmunskii.] Novyi mir, 1969, no. 5.


Eikhenbaum, B. Anna Akhmatova: Opyt analiza. Petrograd, 1923.
Eikhenbaum, B. “Anna Akhmatova: Opyt analiza.” In his book Stat’io poezii. Leningrad, [1969].
Ozerov, L. “Melodika, Plastika, Mysl’.” Literaturnaia Rossiia. Aug. 21, 1964.
Pavlovskii, A. Anna Akhmatova: Ocherk tvorchestva. Leningrad, 1966.
Dobin, E. Poeziia Anny Akhmatovoi. Leningrad, 1968.
Tarasenko, An. Russkie poety XX v. 1900–1955: Bibliografiia. Moscow, 1966.


References in periodicals archive ?
As Anna Akhmatova, the great poetic chronicler of Stalin's terror, said, "I am alive in this grave.
His lovers included the Russian poetess Anna Akhmatova and the newspaper columnist Beatrice Hastings, and he was known to spout verse to anyone who would listen.
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Anna Akhmatova is the best-known Russian poet to come out of the Stalin era.
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Orlando Figes (whom some National Observer readers might have heard reading the poems of Anna Akhmatova in St Paul's Anglican Cathedral during the recent Melbourne Writers' Festival) goes a step further, and considerably deeper.
It offers a setting for six short poems by the 20th century Russian poet Anna Akhmatova and was commissioned with the support of a grant from the Britten-Pears Foundation.
Chagall, who stayed in Soviet Russia until 1922, eventually walked the same Moscow streets as writers Maxim Gorky and Anna Akhmatova.
Encased in a black cover, Night contains four plays: "Hieroglyphics of the Night" and "Night," both preoccupied with blackness, darkness, death, and night skies; "Bells" itself three plays that, according to Gunderson, "seemed to touch each other and to be like the ringing of a bell"; and "Fire" inspired by the sun on the golden domes of Russian Churches in winter and also by the lives and works of Anna Akhmatova, Osip Mandelstam, and Lillian Halegua.
The subject of this article stems from research conducted for a larger study of Anna Akhmatova, which attempted to provide a more coherent framework than formerly existed for understanding the differences between her early period and her later one, the dividing-line being her long period of relative silence after the unofficial ban of her work in 1925 until her 'return' to poetry in around 1936.