Annam

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Annam

(ənăm`, ă`năm), historic region (c.58,000 sq mi/150,200 sq km) and former state, in central Vietnam, SE Asia. The capital was HueHue
, city (1989 pop. 260,489), former capital of the historic region of Annam, Vietnam, in a rich farming area on the Hue River near the South China Sea. Probably founded in the 3d cent. A.D., Hue was occupied in turn by the Chams and the Annamese. After the 16th cent.
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. The region extended nearly 800 mi (1,290 km) along the South China Sea between TonkinTonkin
, historic region (c.40,000 sq mi/103,600 sq km), SE Asia, now forming the heartland of N Vietnam. The capital was Hanoi. Tonkin was bordered on the north by China, on the east by the Gulf of Tonkin, on the south by the historic region of Annam, and on the S and W by Laos.
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 on the north and Cochin ChinaCochin China
, Fr. Cochinchine, historic region (c.26,500 sq mi/68,600 sq km) of Vietnam, SE Asia. The capital and chief city was Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City). Cochin China was bounded by Cambodia on the northwest and north, by the historic region of Annam on the
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 on the south. In addition to Hue, the principal cities in the region are Da NangDa Nang
, formerly Tourane
, city (1990 est. pop. 371,000), central Vietnam, a port on the South China Sea. One of the largest cities in Vietnam, it has an excellent deepwater harbor (dredged and improved by the United States) and is a busy commercial port.
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 (the chief seaport), An Nhon, Quang Tri, and VinhVinh
, city (1989 pop. 175,167), E central Vietnam, near the Song Ca River and the Gulf of Tonkin coast. It is the commercial center for the surrounding agricultural area and is linked to Hanoi by highway and railroad.
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. In 1954, when Vietnam was divided on a line approximating the 17th parallel, Annam went largely to South Vietnam. The ridge of the Annamese Cordillera separated N and central Annam from Laos on the west; the ridge then swung southeastward and ran along the coast of S Annam, which included the plateaus that stretched to the borders of Cambodia and Cochin China. The narrow coastal plains of N and central Annam were interrupted by spurs of mountains that almost reached the sea, as at Porte d'Annam, a pass important in Annamese history.

History

The origins of the Annamese state may be traced to the peoples of the Red River valley in N Vietnam. After more than 2,000 years of contact with the Chinese, they fell under Chinese rule as the result of a Han invasion in 111 B.C. The region, to which the Chinese gave the name Annam ("Pacified South"; a name resented by the people), comprised all of what later became N Annam and Tonkin. Southern Annam was occupied by the kingdom of the Chams, or ChampaChampa
, the kingdom of the Chams, which flourished in Vietnam from the 2d cent. A.D. until the 17th cent. At its greatest extent it occupied Annam as far north as central Vietnam. Its culture was strongly affected by Hindu influences.
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, from the late 2d cent. A.D. In 939 the Annamese drove out the Chinese and established their independence, which they maintained, except for one brief period of Chinese reoccupation (1407–28), until their conquest by the French in the 19th cent.

By 1558 the kingdom was in effect divided between two great families: the Trinh line, which ruled from Hanoi (then called Tonkin) as far south as Porte d'Annam (this area was called Tonkin by the Europeans who arrived in the 16th cent.), and the Nguyens, who ruled from Hue over the territory extending from Porte d'Annam south to the vicinity of Quy Nhon. The ruling dynasties of Hue and Tonkin were overthrown in 1778 and 1786 respectively, and the two domains were reunited (1802) as the empire of Vietnam by Nguyen-Anh, a Hue general, who had procured French military aid by ceding (1787) to the French the port of Da Nang and the Con Son islands. Nguyen-Anh established himself as emperor; his authority was formally recognized by the Chinese in 1803. In 1807 the Vietnamese extended a protectorate over Cambodia, which led in succeeding years to frequent wars against Siam.

After the death of Nguyen-Anh his successor, attempting to withdraw into isolation, mistreated French nationals and Vietnamese Christian converts. This provided an excuse for French military operations, which began in 1858 and resulted in the seizure of S Vietnam (Cochin China) and the establishment of protectorates (by 1884) over N Vietnam (Tonkin) and central Vietnam (Annam). The French, who abolished the name Vietnam, received recognition for their protectorates from the Chinese emperor. In 1887 Annam became part of the Union of Indochina. In World War II Indochina was occupied by the Japanese, who set up the autonomous state of Vietnam, comprising Tonkin, Annam, and Cochin China; Bao Dai, the last emperor of Vietnam, was established as ruler. After the war Annamese and Tonkinese nationalists demanded independence for the new state of Vietnam, and the region was plunged into a long and bloody conflict (see VietnamVietnam
, officially Socialist Republic of Vietnam, republic (2015 est. pop. 93,572,000), 128,400 sq mi (332,642 sq km), Southeast Asia. Occupying the eastern coastline of the Southeast Asian peninsula, Vietnam is bounded by China on the north, by Laos and Cambodia on the west,
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).

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References in periodicals archive ?
The scientists, who found the skull in 2009, were likely the first to dig for ancient bones in Laos since the early 1900s, when a team found skulls and skeletons of several modern humans in another cave in the Annamite Mountains.
"Nanette," Hervey informs the reader, " in spite of her name, was a pure Annamite from Quang Tri," who had matured into "a restless little creature with incendiary thoughts" (67).
After hitting an Annamite hospital in the Yersin hospital complex (where the bombs seriously injured several patients and killed some Annamite nurses), forty-six civilians were killed and 141 were wounded in the Vietnamese and Chinese residential areas.
It may all have been entirely innocent; a humane colon reaching out to help a struggling young Annamite. A cynic, however, might ponder darker meanings.
La fameuse promenade du dragon, dite Tarasque annamite, suscite par ailleurs un commentaire particulierement interessant de l'historien et futur academicien Georges Lenotre qui y voit litteralement un renversement carnavalesque de l'ordre en employant l'expression, au debut de son article, L'Exposition de Paris : << Lorsque les Annamites occupes a coloniser l'Esplanade des Invalides ...
The "Annamite" soldiers, as they were known, required a rifle to accommodate their smaller proportions.
More than 30 years ago, a military UH-1 Huey helicopter carrying four photojournalists over the Annamite Mountains of Laos was struck by enemy fire and crashed to the jungle below.
As part of the code of law of the last Chinese dynasty, it entered the annamite law, which was administered by French tribunals in Indochina.
sailors and Annamite soldiers to lower the new engine safely into place to achieve "the fastest -- and undoubtedly the first -- engine change that had ever been made in Indochina," according to Donovan.
A recent list of rare and threatened species includes more than 50 animals (not including birds), such as the kouprey (Bos sauveli), the thamin (Cervus eldi siamensis), the musk deer (Moschus berezovskii), black gibbon (Hylobates concolor), the Tonkin langur (Trachypithecus [=Presbytis] francoisi), the green peacock (Pavo muticus), the Annamite pheasant (Lophura edwardsi) and the Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis).
Elsewhere, Ajalbert recreates the atmosphere of daily life in Laos, by following step by step the foundering of a French administrator in the 'su-su', the sloppiness induced by the Laotian way of life, or by reproducing, as though from within, the incomparable poetry of the songs and love affairs of the young Laotians, in Sao Van Di.(18) After Hien le Maboul, the story of a simple 'soldat de deuxieme classe a la onzieme compagnie du premier regiment de tirailleurs annamites' who becomes an infantryman because he is simple-minded and who dies for having wanted to 'vivre comme les autres hommes', Emile Nolly writes in 1910 La Barque annamite.

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