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Anne

, queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland
Anne, 1665–1714, queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1702–7), later queen of Great Britain and Ireland (1707–14), daughter of James II and Anne Hyde; successor to William III.

Early Life

Reared as a Protestant and married (1683) to Prince George of Denmark (d. 1708), she was not close to her Catholic father and acquiesced in the Glorious Revolution (1688), which put William III and her sister, Mary II, on the throne. She was soon on bad terms with them, however, partly because they objected to her favorite, Sarah Jennings (later Sarah Churchill, duchess of Marlborough), who was to exercise great influence in Anne's private and public life.

Of Anne's many children the only one to live much beyond infancy—the duke of Gloucester—died at the age of 11 in 1700. Since neither she nor William had surviving children and support for her exiled Catholic half-brother rose and fell in Great Britain (see Stuart, James Francis Edward; Jacobites), the question of succession continued after the Act of Settlement (1701) and after Anne's accession.

Reign

The last Stuart ruler, Anne was the first to rule over Great Britain, which was created when the Act of Union joined Scotland to England and Wales in 1707. Her reign, like that of William III, was one of transition to parliamentary government; Anne was, for example, the last English monarch to exercise (1707) the royal veto. Domestic and foreign affairs alike were dominated by the War of the Spanish Succession, known in America as Queen Anne's War (see French and Indian Wars). In the actual fighting on the Continent, Sarah Churchill's husband, the duke of Marlborough, won a series of spectacular victories. At home the costs of the fighting were an issue between the Tories, who were cool to the war, and the Whigs, who favored it.

Party lines were slowly hardening, but party government and ministerial responsibility were not yet established; intrigues and the favor of the queen still made and unmade cabinets, though the influence of public opinion, shaped by an increasingly powerful press and elections, was growing. Thus it was at least partly through the pressure of the Marlboroughs that Anne was induced, despite her Tory sympathies, to oust Tory ministers in favor of Whigs. The Marlboroughs were even able to force the dismissal of Robert Harley in 1708, though the scolding duchess had already lost much of her power to Anne's new favorite, the quiet Abigail Masham, kinswoman and friend of Harley.

When the unpopularity of the war and the furor over the prosecution of Henry Sacheverell showed the power of the Tories (who won the elections of 1710) and made the move feasible, Anne recalled Harley to power, and the Marlboroughs were dismissed. Harley, created earl of Oxford, was political leader until 1714, when he was replaced by his Tory colleague and rival, Viscount Bolingbroke (see St. John, Henry). Soon afterward the queen died, and Jacobite hopes were dashed by the succession of George I of the house of Hanover.

Character and Period

Queen Anne was a dull, stubborn, but conscientious woman, devoted to the Church of England and within it to the High Church party. She supported the act (1711) against “occasional conformity” and the Schism Act (1714), both directed against dissenters and both repealed in 1718. She also created a trust fund, known as Queen Anne's Bounty, for poor clerical benefices. During Anne's reign such thinkers as George Berkeley and Sir Isaac Newton and such scholars and writers as Richard Bentley, Swift, Pope, Addison, Steele, and Defoe were at work, while Sir Christopher Wren and Sir John Vanbrugh were at the same time setting in stone and brick the rich elegance of the period.

Bibliography

See biographies by M. R. Hopkinson (1934), D. Green (1970), E. Gregg (1984), and A. Somerset (2012); G. M. Trevelyan, England under Queen Anne (3 vol., 1930–34); G. N. Clark, The Later Stuarts (2d ed. 1955).


Anne

, British princess
Anne (Anne Elizabeth Alice Louise), 1950–, British princess, only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, duke of Edinburgh. She was educated at Benenden School. In 1973 she married a British army officer, Mark Phillips, but they were divorced in 1992 and she married Timothy Laurence. Her two children by Mark Phillips are Mark Andrew Phillips (b. 1977), and Zara Anne Elizabeth Phillips (b. 1981). An accomplished horsewoman, she represented Britain in various international show-jumping events, including the Montreal Olympics in 1976. She is also president of the Save the Children Fund. She was created princess royal in 1987.
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Anne

1. Princess, the Princess Royal. born 1950, daughter of Elizabeth II of Great Britain and Northern Ireland; a noted horsewoman and president of the Save the Children Fund
2. Queen. 1665--1714, queen of Great Britain and Ireland (1702--14), daughter of James II, and the last of the Stuart monarchs
3. Saint. (in Christian tradition) the mother of the Virgin Mary. Feast day: July 26 or 25
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Anning, who has since lost his seat in Australia's parliament, triggered outrage by claiming the attack in neighboring New Zealand was the result of Muslim immigration to the country.
A teenager breaks an egg on the head of Senator Fraser Anning while he holds a press conference, in Melbourne.- AP file photo
The incident took place after Anning had linked the deadly March 15 terror attacks at two mosques in New Zealand's Christchurch city with "immigration program which allowed Muslim fanatics to migrate to New Zealand in the first place."
Anning had said, in a statement issued shortly after the mass shooting, that the real cause of the bloodshed was the "immigration program which allowed Muslim fanatics to migrate to New Zealand in the first place".
Politicians from major and minor parties joined forces to censure the controversial Queensland Senator in a voice vote in the upper house Senate.Senator Anning's comments were ugly and divisive.
Video: Politician Fraser Anning hits a young protester who egged him for islamophobic comments
Connolly went viral after he cracked an egg on Senator Fraser Anning, who dropped victim-blaming comments regarding the tragic shooting.
However, the video is believed to resurface on the internet following the famous eggboy incident took place during the weekend, when a young Australian teen appeared in a video smashing an egg on the head of Senator Fraser Anning for blaming victims of the New Zealand Christchurch terror attacks for being attacked.
Moreover, Fouad strongly denounced the hateful statement of the Australian Senator Fraser Anning of Queensland, who shifted the blame towards the Muslim victims while their families are still in deep grief.
He doubled down at a news conference in Melbourne on Saturday when television cameras caught a 17-year-old boy breaking an egg on Anning's head.
Senator Anning crossed all limits of decency by claiming that the attacks highlighted the 'growing fear over an increasing Muslim presence' in Australian and New Zealand communities.
Queensland senator Fraser Anning was condemned this week for his rant on the Christchurch mosque terror attack, after he claimed the massacre was the result of New Zealand's immigration policies.