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1. the region of the body between the anus and the genital organs, including some of the underlying structures
2. the nearly diamond-shaped surface of the human trunk between the thighs



in man, the anatomical region that comprises the pelvic floor and is located between the apex of the coccyx posteriorly, the apex of the subpubic arch anteriorly, and the ischial tuberosities laterally.

In obstetrics, the perineum is the space between the anus and the posterior commissure of the labia majora. Its bony foundation includes the pelvic ischial tuberosities, the pubic bone, and the coccyx. The perineum also contains muscles, ligaments, fatty tissue, vessels, nerves, and some internal organs. Shaped like a rhombus, it is divided into two triangles by a line that joins the ischial tuberosities; the male urethra or the female urethra and vagina pass through the anterior urogenital triangle. The rectum passes through the posterior, or anal, triangle.

Injuries to the perineum can consist of closed or open wounds. They arise most often with fractures of the pelvic bone when there is a great displacement of fragments (indirect mechanism) or with a blow to the perineum (direct mechanism). On the average, 10 percent of all women suffer perineal ruptures during childbirth, most often with the birth of the first child. The most common diseases of the perineum are suppurative processes near the rectum upon injuries to the rectal mucosa. Surgery is required to treat injuries and suppurative diseases of the perineum.


The portion of the body included in the outlet of the pelvis, bounded in front by the pubic arch, behind by the coccyx and sacrotuberous ligaments, and at the sides by the tuberosities of the ischium.
The region between the anus and the scrotum in the male, between the anus and the posterior commissure of the vulva in the female.
References in periodicals archive ?
Prenatal exposure to phthalates is associated with decreased anogenital distance and penile size in male newborns.
In male rodents, exposure to phthalates has been linked to a shortened anogenital distance, the span from the center of the anus to the base of the penis.
The study results, which will appear in an upcoming Environmental Health Perspectives, show a statistically strong association between a short anogenital distance and high exposures to four phthalates.
Associations among hypospadias, cryptorchidism, anogenital distance, and endocrine disruption.
METHODS: We measured anogenital distance among participants of the "Rhea" mother-child cohort study in Crete and the Hospital del Mar (HMAR) cohort in Barcelona.
Anogenital distance (AGO; distance from anus to genitals) may serve as such a measure.
DHT is further required for the regression of nipple anlagen in male rats and for the growth of the perineum to produce the normal male anogenital distance (AGD), which is longer than in females (Imperato-McGinley et al.
KEY WORDS: anogenital distance, cryptorchidism, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, endocrine disruption, hypospadias.
Male rats exposed to linuron in utero exhibit permanent changes in anogenital distance, nipple retention, and epididymal malformations that result in subsequent testicular atrophy.
2005), who reported a significant relationship between a measure of anogenital distance (AGD) in boys and levels of phthalate metabolites in their mothers' urine during pregnancy.
We pointed out that a value for "normal" anogenital distance (AGD) is not known and that without this information, "abnormal" AGD values cannot be determined.
A recent epidemiologic study showed certain phthalates to be significantly associated with reduced anogenital distance in human male infants, the first evidence of subtle developmental effects in human male infants exposed prenatally to phthalates.