Anopheles


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Related to Anopheles: malaria, Anopheles stephensi

Anopheles:

see mosquitomosquito
, small, long-legged insect of the order Diptera, the true flies. The females of most species have piercing and sucking mouth parts and apparently they must feed at least once upon mammalian blood before their eggs can develop properly.
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Anopheles

 

a genus of the family Culicidae; members are commonly called malaria mosquitoes because they are carriers of Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria in man. Only the females suck blood, feeding mainly on domestic animals and man. A resting anopheline mosquito, in contrast to nonmalarial ones, sits with its abdomen tilted upward and its head and proboscis, thorax, and abdomen forming a straight line.

Malaria mosquitoes develop in water. The eggs, which have floats, are deposited on the water one at a time. The larva has no respiratory tube (siphon) and rests horizontally on the sur-face. At the last molting the larva is transformed into a pupa.

More than 300 species are known, distributed on all the continents, as far north as approximately 65°-66° N lat. There are nine species in the USSR, including the common malaria mosquito (Anopheles maculipennis) and A. superpictus, once the principal carriers of the causative agent of malaria. The common malaria mosquito has four dark spots on the inner parts of its wings. It is distributed widely, as far north as the boundaries of the genus distribution and as far east as Blagoveshchensk. It breeds mainly in shallow, standing waters that are rich in aquatic vegetation. It concentrates close to populated areas and attacks humans predominantly in houses or near dwellings.

Anopheles superpictus has four or five light spots on the anterior edge of the wing. In the USSR it is distributed in Middle Asia and the Transcaucasus. It breeds mainly in small bodies of water and along streams and mountain rivers.

In order to control the malarial mosquitoes, housing for domestic animals and human dwellings are treated with insecticides. Other effective methods include draining the mosquitoes’ breeding areas and improving irrigation systems. To destroy the larvae, kerosene and petroleum are poured into bodies of water, which are also treated with insecticides. Biological control methods are also used, particularly in the Transcaucasus and southern Middle Asia, where waters are stocked with fish (for example, the mosquito fish) that eat mosquito larvae and pupae. Repellents, substances that ward off malaria mosquitoes, are used to protect humans.

REFERENCES

Beklemishev, V. N. Ekologiia maliariinogo komara (Anopheles maculipennis Mgn.). Moscow, 1944.
Pavlovskii, E. N. Rukovodstvo po parazitologii cheloveka s ucheniem o perenoschikakh transmissivnykh boleznei, 5th ed., vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Gutsevich, A. V., A. S. Monchadskii, and A. A. Shtakel’berg. Komary (sem. Culicidae). Leningrad, 1970.

A. V. GUTSEVICH

Anopheles

[ə′näf·ə‚lēz]
(invertebrate zoology)
A genus of mosquitoes in the family Culicidae; members are vectors of malaria, dengue, and filariasis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Anopheles mosquitoes pollinate some plants and provide food for some animals -- how would plunging numbers of some of those species affect ecosystems?
Anopheles has spots of black and white scales mainly on the wings but Aedes has black and white stripes all over the body except on the wings.
Malaria, Anopheles mosquito, Prevalence, Relative humidity, Temperature.
bancroftii genotype A1 mosquitoes into New Caledonia, a territory previously known as free from Anopheles mosquito species.
Chemical insecticides are largely used for the control of malaria and many have been recommended for the public health use.9 These chemical insecticides are largely used for indoor spraying and mosquito nets.10 In Pakistan 24 species of the genus anopheles have been reported.11 The anopheles stephensi and anopheles culicifacies are the confirmed vector of malaria in Pakistan.12 The development of resistance against chemical insecticides is a serious threat to malaria control programmes.13 Therefore there is need to develop alternative vector control tools and should be taken into consideration to minimise the human vector contact and hence malaria transmission intensity.
The larval stages of all species of Anopheles require water, so the presence of a water source is associated with an increased distribution and density of larvae, as well as an increased incidence of adult mosquitoes and thus malaria [11, 12].
Mosquito species 2013 HC 2014 HC 2014 Biodiversa Aedes cinereus/geminus 6 6 299 Aedes vexans 1718 1847 4417 Anopheles algeriensis 4 -- -- Anopheles claviger -- -- -- Anopheles hyrcanus 145 63 -- Anopheles maculipennis complex 14 2 13 Anopheles plumbeus 9 26 150 Coquillettidia richiardii 2169 4333 1287 Culex martinii -- -- 66 Culex modestus 31 8 -- Culex pipiens complex/Cx.
In Anopheles mosquito vectors, the cycle begins when gametocytes are ingested by mosquitoes, but approximately 62% of mosquitoes that ingest infected blood never get infected.
Le parasite du paludisme est principalement transmis, la nuit, lors de la piqure par une femelle moustique du genre Anopheles, elle-meme contaminee apres avoir pique un individu impalude.
This year, we have found anopheles stephensi and culicifacies circulating.