Anopheles

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Anopheles:

see mosquitomosquito
, small, long-legged insect of the order Diptera, the true flies. The females of most species have piercing and sucking mouth parts and apparently they must feed at least once upon mammalian blood before their eggs can develop properly.
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Anopheles

 

a genus of the family Culicidae; members are commonly called malaria mosquitoes because they are carriers of Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria in man. Only the females suck blood, feeding mainly on domestic animals and man. A resting anopheline mosquito, in contrast to nonmalarial ones, sits with its abdomen tilted upward and its head and proboscis, thorax, and abdomen forming a straight line.

Malaria mosquitoes develop in water. The eggs, which have floats, are deposited on the water one at a time. The larva has no respiratory tube (siphon) and rests horizontally on the sur-face. At the last molting the larva is transformed into a pupa.

More than 300 species are known, distributed on all the continents, as far north as approximately 65°-66° N lat. There are nine species in the USSR, including the common malaria mosquito (Anopheles maculipennis) and A. superpictus, once the principal carriers of the causative agent of malaria. The common malaria mosquito has four dark spots on the inner parts of its wings. It is distributed widely, as far north as the boundaries of the genus distribution and as far east as Blagoveshchensk. It breeds mainly in shallow, standing waters that are rich in aquatic vegetation. It concentrates close to populated areas and attacks humans predominantly in houses or near dwellings.

Anopheles superpictus has four or five light spots on the anterior edge of the wing. In the USSR it is distributed in Middle Asia and the Transcaucasus. It breeds mainly in small bodies of water and along streams and mountain rivers.

In order to control the malarial mosquitoes, housing for domestic animals and human dwellings are treated with insecticides. Other effective methods include draining the mosquitoes’ breeding areas and improving irrigation systems. To destroy the larvae, kerosene and petroleum are poured into bodies of water, which are also treated with insecticides. Biological control methods are also used, particularly in the Transcaucasus and southern Middle Asia, where waters are stocked with fish (for example, the mosquito fish) that eat mosquito larvae and pupae. Repellents, substances that ward off malaria mosquitoes, are used to protect humans.

REFERENCES

Beklemishev, V. N. Ekologiia maliariinogo komara (Anopheles maculipennis Mgn.). Moscow, 1944.
Pavlovskii, E. N. Rukovodstvo po parazitologii cheloveka s ucheniem o perenoschikakh transmissivnykh boleznei, 5th ed., vol. 2. Moscow-Leningrad, 1948.
Gutsevich, A. V., A. S. Monchadskii, and A. A. Shtakel’berg. Komary (sem. Culicidae). Leningrad, 1970.

A. V. GUTSEVICH

Anopheles

[ə′näf·ə‚lēz]
(invertebrate zoology)
A genus of mosquitoes in the family Culicidae; members are vectors of malaria, dengue, and filariasis.
References in periodicals archive ?
Chaitanya, "Cloning, characterization and transmission blocking potential of midgut carboxypeptidase A in Anopheles stephensi," Acta Tropica, vol.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria challenge by the bite of aseptic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes: results of a randomized infectivity trial.
Vittatus y a Anopheles stephensi. El cambio del vector representa una sorprendente adaptacion evolutiva que implico una mutacion en la envoltura del virus lo que facilito su replicacion.
The larvicidal activity of the synthesized nanoparticles has been tested against the larvae of malaria vector Anopheles stephensi and filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus.
(Asteraceae) leaf extracts against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)," Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, vol.
The other malaria vectors Anopheles culicifacis and Anopheles stephensi are prevailing prevalent in very low density.
Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.
Among other Acanthaceae and Asteraceae family plants, the methanol extract of Eclipta alba and Andrographis paniculata has been shown to be active against Anopheles stephensi with LC(50) values of 150.36 and 130.19 ppm, respectively (Govindarajan and Sivakumar, 2011) .
Analysis of deduced amino acid sequence of APN in Anopheles stephensi for motif predication that found 4 motifs in assigned positions.
The hexane extract of fruits of Melia azedarach has been reported to be strongly larvicidal against malaria vector Anopheles stephensi [43].
The essential oil from Cymbopogon citratus exhibited 70.3% repellency against Aedes aegyptii and 100% repellency against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (11).