hemorrhage

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Related to Antepartum hemorrhage: placenta previa, postpartum hemorrhage

hemorrhage

(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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Hemorrhage

 

escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.

A. B. GALITSKII

hemorrhage

[′hem·rij]
(medicine)
The escape of blood from the vascular system.

haemorrhage

(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
References in periodicals archive ?
Women with placenta previa and antepartum hemorrhage have a worse outcome than those who do not bleed before delivery.
multiparity, time interval between the two pregnancies, period of gestation (POG), antenatal care (check up), history of PROM, history of burning maturation, polyhydramnios, previous low birth weight baby, threaten abortion, history of antepartum hemorrhage, previous perinatal loss, previous premature birth, maternal pyrexia, previous twins are mentioned in Table 3.
(21.39%), anemia (19.25%), pregnancy with previous caesarean section (14.82%), premature rupture of membrane (10.49%), malpresentations (7.36%), fetal distress (6.85%), antepartum hemorrhage (5.27%) and obstructed labor (5.16%).
b) Pregnancy with severe anemia due to acute hemorrhage event like antepartum hemorrhage (abruption placenta, placenta previa, molar pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy).
Prenatal obstetrical complication rates in the ART/HAART cohort included intrauterine growth retardation (5.2%), preterm labor (3.2%), gestational diabetes (3.2%), hyperemesis gravidatum (2.6%), polyhydramnios (1.9%), pregnancy-induced hypertension (1.3%), and antepartum hemorrhage (0.6%).
Perinatal morbidity and mortality in antepartum hemorrhage. J Obstet Gynecol India 2001; 51(3): 102-4.
A limited examination is "appropriate and desirable," according to ACOG, in the assessment of amniotic fluid volume, fetal biophysical profile testing, ultrasound-guided amniocentesis, external cephalic version, confirmation of fetal presentation, location of the placenta in antepartum hemorrhage, and confirmation of fetal life or death.
Common mode of delivery was Caesarean Section (83%) (Refer Table II) MSAF was more common in pregnancies associated with antenatal complications like Oligohydramnios (30%), pregnancy induced hypertension (24%), anemia (14%), antepartum eclampsia (4%) and antepartum hemorrhage (4%).
In the obstetric literature, factitious cases of antepartum hemorrhage, trophoblastic disease, pyrexia, decreased fetal movement, ectopic pregnancy and hyperemesis gravida have been reported.
Pregnant women having normal amniotic fluid volume with medical complications like gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease or any obstetric complications like preeclampsia, eclampsia, multiple pregnancy, antepartum hemorrhage etc were excluded from this study.
The exclusion criteria were hemoglobin less than 8g/dL, overdistended uterus (hydramnios, multiple pregnancy, and large baby), antepartum hemorrhage, induced labor, instrumental delivery and known coagulation disorders.