hemorrhage

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Related to Antepartum hemorrhage: placenta previa, postpartum hemorrhage

hemorrhage

(hĕm`ərĭj), escape of blood from the circulation (arteries, veins, capillaries) to the internal or external tissues. The term is usually applied to a loss of blood that is copious enough to threaten health or life. Slow bleeding may lead to anemiaanemia
, condition in which the concentration of hemoglobin in the circulating blood is below normal. Such a condition is caused by a deficient number of erythrocytes (red blood cells), an abnormally low level of hemoglobin in the individual cells, or both these conditions
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, while the sudden loss of a large amount of blood may cause shockshock,
any condition in which the circulatory system is unable to provide adequate circulation to the body tissues, also called circulatory failure or circulatory collapse. Shock results in the slowing of vital functions and in severe cases, if untreated, in death.
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. Hemorrhage from a cerebral artery can be fatal because of interference with brain function. Many diseases and disorders (e.g., hemophilia, hemorrhagic fevers, hemorrhoids, peptic ulcer, scurvy, tuberculosis, and typhoid fever) as well as childbirth and many injuries can give rise to hemorrhage. Internal hemorrhage may require surgical intervention. See first aidfirst aid,
immediate and temporary treatment of a victim of sudden illness or injury while awaiting the arrival of medical aid. Proper early measures may be instrumental in saving life and ensuring a better and more rapid recovery.
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Hemorrhage

 

escape of blood from blood vessels that have been injured as a result of trauma or vascular disease.

Hemorrhages may be arterial (scarlet blood spurts like a fountain), venous (a flow of dark blood), capillary, or mixed. The intensity of bleeding depends on the size of the injured vessel and the condition of its wall. Blood may flow to the outside, into the lumen or body of an organ (stomach, intestine, brain), or into a cavity (abdominal, pleural). Bleeding is accompanied by pallor of the skin and mucosa, dizziness, weakness, dyspnea, thirst, a drop in arterial pressure, and a weak and rapid pulse. A large and rapid blood loss (25 percent of the blood volume or 4—4.5 percent of the body weight) produces loss of consciousness and may result in death. Persons weakened by a disease can be severely affected by even a small blood loss. In persons with atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, bleeding continues longer and is more difficult to stop. Bleeding in hemophilia patients, which arises when there is the slightest trauma, is extremely persistent.

Measures for stopping bleeding depend on its cause and source. Arrest of bleeding may be temporary or permanent. For temporarily stopping bleeding, a tourniquet, or pressure bandage, is applied to the extremities; vasoconstrictors, ice, or hemo-static sponges (on wounds) are also used. These measures often lead to complete cessation of bleeding; if bleeding does not stop it becomes necessary to resort to surgical methods (ligation of the vessel, suturing, removal of the injured or affected organ or of part of it) to achieve permanent cessation of bleeding. Blood transfusion or transfusion of blood substitutes that increase blood coagulation is a necessary part of treatment to control hemorrhage.

A. B. GALITSKII

hemorrhage

[′hem·rij]
(medicine)
The escape of blood from the vascular system.

haemorrhage

(US), hemorrhage
profuse bleeding from ruptured blood vessels
References in periodicals archive ?
Apart from these complications some other systemic complications also took place like consumption coagulopathy in 22%, antepartum hemorrhage in 20% and postpartum hemorrhage in 30% cases.
Causes of still birth in vaginal delivery were due to maternal reasons like APE, severe anemia, antepartum hemorrhage while in caesarean births causes were obstructed labor, transverse lie with hand prolapse, antepartum hemorrhage.
Most of NICU shifted babies delivered by the patients, who had hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, fetal distress, PROM, antepartum hemorrhage, preterm labor pains, and obstructed labor.
2 Table 5: Maternal outcome Maternal Preeclampsia Gestational Chronic complications hypertension hypertension Eclampsia 5 HELLP syndrome 9 Eclampsia +HELLP 3 HELLP +Acute renal failure 1 Acute Renal Failure 1 Hepatorenal failure 1 Antepartum hemorrhage 3 Postpartum hemorrhage 1 1 Hepato renal failure 1 +Mechanical ventilation
A limited examination is "appropriate and desirable," according to ACOG, in the assessment of amniotic fluid volume, fetal biophysical profile testing, ultrasound-guided amniocentesis, external cephalic version, confirmation of fetal presentation, location of the placenta in antepartum hemorrhage, and confirmation of fetal life or death.
b) Pregnancy with severe anemia due to acute hemorrhage event like antepartum hemorrhage (abruption placenta, placenta previa, molar pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy).
In the obstetric literature, factitious cases of antepartum hemorrhage, trophoblastic disease, pyrexia, decreased fetal movement, ectopic pregnancy and hyperemesis gravida have been reported.
Pregnant women having normal amniotic fluid volume with medical complications like gestational diabetes mellitus, hypertension, heart disease or any obstetric complications like preeclampsia, eclampsia, multiple pregnancy, antepartum hemorrhage etc were excluded from this study.
The exclusion criteria were hemoglobin less than 8g/dL, overdistended uterus (hydramnios, multiple pregnancy, and large baby), antepartum hemorrhage, induced labor, instrumental delivery and known coagulation disorders.