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ATM Adaptation Layer
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(ATM Adaption Layer) The part of the ATM protocol that breaks up application packets into 48-byte payloads that become ATM cells when the 5-byte headers are attached. The AAL resides between the higher layer transport protocols and the ATM layer. The AAL comprises two layers: Convergence Sublayer (CS) and Segmentation & Reassembly Sublayer (SAR). There are four types of AALs, which are summarized below. See ATM.

AAL-1 Connection-oriented, Constant Bit Rate (CBR), such as DS1 and DS3.

AAL-2 Connection-oriented, Variable Bit Rate (VBR).

AAL-3/4 Connection-oriented and connectionless, Available Bit Rate (ABR).

AAL-5 Connection-oriented, Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR). Least amount of error checking and retransmission.

AAL-6 Connection-oriented, MPEG-2 video streams.

ATM Adaption Layer
The SSCS is a service dependent layer, while the CPCS provides common functions such as CRC checking and padding to fill out a 48-byte payload. The SAR converts the output of the CS into cells for the ATM layer.
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Initial Access: After pneumoperitoneum is created with veress needle, the 10 mm port is inserted at palmer's point higher up in the anterior axillary line. Next 5 mm working port is also inserted 5 cm below the previous port in the anterior axillary line another 5 mm working port is also inserted in the same line 5 cm below the second port.
Anterior instrument port 10 mm trocar third to fourth intercostal space, placed in anterior axillary line.
Examination revealed cardiomegaly with the apex in the sixth intercostal space in the anterior axillary line. A pansystolic murmur and a palpable second heart sound (P2) was present on auscultation.
After establishing the pneumoperitoneum by Veress needle or by Hasson technique, three to four trocars are usually placed between the midclavicular line and anterior axillary line 2 cm caudally to the costal margin.
The autopsy detected hemorrhagic subcutaneous fatty tissue and musculature in the area of the anterior axillary line in addition to the above-mentioned ruptured vessels.
After emptying the stomach of its contents using suction, insert the Veress needle into the peritoneal cavity at a point midway between the midclavicular line and the anterior axillary line, 3 cm below the costal margin (FIGURE).
Lead [V.sub.5] is located at the same level as [V.sub.4], but at the anterior axillary line, and [V.sub.6] is on the horizontal level of [V.sub.4] and [V.sub.5] at the midaxillary line.

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