anthracite

(redirected from Anthracites)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.

anthracite

(ăn`thrəsīt'): see coalcoal,
fuel substance of plant origin, largely or almost entirely composed of carbon with varying amounts of mineral matter. Types

There is a complete series of carbonaceous fuels, which differ from each other in the relative amounts of moisture, volatile matter,
..... Click the link for more information.
.

Anthracite

 

humic coal of a high degree of metamor-phism. With a microscope plant residues can be discerned.

Anthracite is black, often with a grayish shade, with an occasional spotty iridescence. It gives a velvety black line on a porcelain plate. Its luster is high and metallic. It is highly viscous, does not sinter, and conducts electricity well. It has a strong, metallic luster. Its highest hardness on the mineralogical scale is 2.0–2.5; its density of organic mass is 1,500–1,700 kg/m3. Heat of combustion of organic mass is 33.9–34.8 megajoules per kg (8,100–8,350 kcal/kg). Anthracite has a low analytical moisture content of 1–3 percent, and its combustible mass contains up to 9 percent volatiles, 93.5–97.0 percent carbon, 1–3 percent hydrogen, and 1.5–2.0 percent oxygen and nitrogen. Anthracite containing more than 97 percent carbon in the combustible mass is called superanthracite. According to the volume yield of volatiles, it is divided into two commercial grades: semianthracite, containing 220–330 liters per kg, and anthracite as such, with a volume yield below 220 liters per kg.

Anthracite occurs in the form of beds of different thicknesses, usually intermediate and thin—rarely up to 10–40 m thick—in deposits of many geological systems from the Devonian to the Triassic. The total anthracite deposits are comparatively small and amount to approximately 3 percent of the world’s coal reserve. The largest quantity of anthracite is located in the USSR (the Donets and Kuznets basins, for example). Considerable anthracite deposits exist in China and the USA. Anthracite is used as a high-quality energy-producing fuel (according to its uses, a distinction is made in industry between gas-generating anthracite and anthracite for the production of calcium and carbide) and also in the manufacture of electrodes and semiconductors. Special grades of anthracite which do not crack during combustion are used in casting and blast furnace processes.

REFERENCES

Ammosov, I. I., and Tan Siu-i. Stadii izmeneniia uglei i parageneticheskie othosheniia goriuchikh iskopaemykh. Moscow, 1961.
Zhemchuzhnikov, Iu. A., and A. I. Ginzburg. Osnovy petrologii uglei. Moscow, 1960.

A. K. MATVEEV

anthracite

[′an·thrə‚sīt]
(mineralogy)
A high-grade metamorphic coal having a semimetallic luster, high content of fixed carbon, and high density, and burning with a short blue flame and little smoke or odor. Also known as hard coal; Kilkenny coal; stone coal.

anthracite

a hard jet-black coal that burns slowly with a nonluminous flame giving out intense heat. Fixed carbon content: 86--98 per cent; calorific value: 3.14 × 107--3.63 × 107 J/kg
References in periodicals archive ?
In 2014, the joint venture plans to market a total of 250,000 metric tons (mt) of anthracites, which will make up 20% of India's anthracite market.
The anthracite coal seems of South Korea exhibit some general characteristics:
* The anthracite is a high ash (30-40%), low sulphur (0.3-0.7%) and highly carbonised graphitic coal.
* The carbonisation of the anthracite has been increased by strong deformation.
The reasons for this include the stabilisation of oil prices; the general rise in the level of incomes in Korea, leading to the increased use of electricity and gas instead of anthracite for home consumption; and the relative rise in the price of anthracite resulting from increased costs of production.
The total consumption of anthracite in South Korea in 1987 was 26 Mt, comprising 23.59 Mt used as domestic fuel and 2.44 Mt for power generation.