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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



fungus diseases of herbaceous and tree-shrub plants. The above-ground parts of the plants become covered with dark ulcers, tubercules, and spots. At times the ulcers are surrounded with a purple border, while the light fungus spores that form in the center produce a pink, orange, or whitish cast. Anthracnoses are caused by imperfect fungi from the genera Gloeosporium, Colletotrichum, and Kabatiella. In the summer, they develop torus-type fruiting bodies on which mucilage-agglutinated spores form. There is an ascus stage in the development cycle of some of the fungi. The diseases are transmitted by contaminated seeds, plant remains, and soil. They can also be carried by water, insects, and wind. Anthracnoses are most widespread in areas with temperate climates and develop more intensively in humid years. The fungus infests flax, legume, melon, currant, gooseberry, grape, red clover, apple, raspberry, almond, walnut, citrus, tea, and other crops, often significantly reducing their yield. The measures to combat the fungus include correct crop rotation, developing resistant varieties, spring cutting and burning of the infested tree and shrub shoots, separating the healthy and contaminated seeds, destroying the stubble, and summer spraying with Bordeaux mixture or its substitutes.


Slovaf -spravochnik fitopatologa, 2nd ed. Edited by P. N. Golovin. Leningrad, 1967.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.