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the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas


the political rule, either directly or indirectly, of one society, country or nation over another.

Colonialism, however, involves more than just political rule. In the 20th century it has been particularly associated with one ETHNIC GROUP dominating another within the dominated group's territory Thus, in this century, colonialism has been associated with European, white, Christian, wealthy rulers who have attempted to impose cultural values over the ruled by either devaluing or attempting to eradicate the colonized groups’ religions, languages, customary laws and economic activities. Colonialism has therefore been seen by many sociologists as closely associated with the development of RACISM. Also in this century colonization has been associated with the dominance of the colony's economy by the colonizer, and it is this that is one of the key differences which Marxist writers see as distinguishing 20th-century colonization from earlier forms. See IMPERIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM.

Various forms of colonial rule have existed in history, but one important distinction is between direct and indirect rule. In this century, the British in Africa often relied on indirect rule, nominating indigenous people or institutions as representatives of the British crown, whilst the French imposed direct rule from Paris through French officials. See also ORIENTALISM, POST-COLONIAL THEORY.



the political, economic, and ideological subjugation of countries that are, as a rule, poorly developed socially and economically, by the ruling classes of exploiter states. This concept is usually applied to the age of monopoly capitalism, when a territorial partition of the world has been completed and the colonial system of imperialism has taken shape. The term “colonialism” is also used to mean “colonial system.”

References in periodicals archive ?
L'armee israelienne a evacue de force hier samedi matin deux nouveaux campements anti-colonisation que des militants palestiniens avaient tente de dresser pres de la localite de Yatta dans le sud de la Cisjordanie, selon des temoins palestiniens.
Hagit Ofran de l'OGN anti-colonisation evalue a [beaucoup moins que] environ 500 [beaucoup plus grand que] foyers, precisant que les chiffres etaient generalement semblables a ceux des dernieres annees.
Plusieurs nouveaux projets de construction massifs dans des quartiers de colonisation a Jerusalem-Est occupee et annexee sont sur le point d'etre approuves, a indique mardi l'association anti-colonisation israelienne La Paix Maintenant.
Des graffitis menacants imputes a des colons extremistes ont ete decouverts dans la cage d'escalier d'un immeuble de Jerusalem oE vit une responsable du mouvement israelien anti-colonisation La Paix Maintenant, a indique hier lundi la police.