(redirected from Anti-conscription)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal.


compulsory enrollment of personnel for service in the armed forces. Obligatory service in the armed forces has existed since ancient times in many cultures, including the samuraisamurai
, knights of feudal Japan, retainers of the daimyo. This aristocratic warrior class arose during the 12th-century wars between the Taira and Minamoto clans and was consolidated in the Tokugawa period.
..... Click the link for more information.
 in Japan, warriors in the Aztec Empire, citizen militiamen in ancient Greece and Rome, and aristocrats and their peasants or yeomen during the Middle Ages in Europe. In England, compulsory military service was employed on the local level in the Anglo-Saxon fyrd as early as the 9th cent. In the 16th cent. MachiavelliMachiavelli, Niccolò
, 1469–1527, Italian author and statesman, one of the outstanding figures of the Renaissance, b. Florence. Life

A member of the impoverished branch of a distinguished family, he entered (1498) the political service of the
..... Click the link for more information.
 argued that every able-bodied man in a nation was a potential soldier and could by means of conscription be required to serve in the armed forces. Conscription in the modern sense of the term dates from 1793, when the Convention of the French Republic raised an army of 300,000 men from the provinces. A few years later, conscription enabled Napoleon INapoleon I
, 1769–1821, emperor of the French, b. Ajaccio, Corsica, known as "the Little Corporal." Early Life

The son of Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte (or Buonaparte; see under Bonaparte, family), young Napoleon was sent (1779) to French military schools at
..... Click the link for more information.
 to build his tremendous fighting forces. Following Napoleon's example, Muhammad Ali of Egypt raised a powerful army in the 1830s. Compulsory peacetime recruitment was introduced (1811–12) by Prussia. Mass armies, raised at little cost by conscription, completely changed the scale of battle by the time of the Napoleonic Wars. The institution of conscription, which was increasingly justified by statesmen on grounds of national defense and economic stimulation, spread to other European nations and Japan in the 19th cent. At the outbreak of World War I, Great Britain adopted conscription and used it again in World War II; it was abolished in 1962. Though little used in the United States prior to the Civil War, conscription was used by both sides in that war and in most large-scale U.S. wars since, often with great controversy. Most of the important military powers of the 20th cent. have used conscription to raise their armed forces. China, because of its large population, has a policy of selective conscription. Impressmentimpressment,
forcible enrollment of recruits for military duty. Before the establishment of conscription, many countries supplemented their militia and mercenary troops by impressment.
..... Click the link for more information.
 is the forcible mustering of recruits. It lacks the scope and bureaucratic form of conscription. Many countries throughout the world, such as Israel, have mandatory military service; a few allow for alternate civilian service or release for conscientious objectorsconscientious objector,
person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of Friends (Quakers), the
..... Click the link for more information.
. See also selective serviceselective service,
in U.S. history, term for conscription.

Conscription was established (1863) in the U.S. Civil War, but proved unpopular (see draft riots). The law authorized release from service to anyone who furnished a substitute and, at first, to those who paid $300.
..... Click the link for more information.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.


Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a method of troop recruitment based on universal military service. This system was in force in France in the late 18th century and the 19th.

During the French Revolution the Convention decreed in August 1793 the compulsory mass levy into the army of all Frenchmen between the ages of 18 and 40, the first places to be filled by bachelors and childless men between the ages of 18 and 25. In 1798 a universal six-year military obligation became the law in France under the name of conscription. Originally military service was considered an inescapable personal responsibility, and no one could take anyone else’s place. But by 1800 provisions were made to make the system less strict so that replacements could serve for the conscripts and exemptions could be bought. Military service thus became obligatory but not personal. Conscription was in effect in France until 1872 and in Russia (only for residents of Poland) from 1815 to 1874. In the second half of the 19th century conscription was replaced by universal military service.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
He took the constitutional course of setting out his protest in the way in which the law provided it should be done, and he gave notice of his intention to initiate a discussion in the Legislative Assembly regarding the censorship, and in the course of that discussion he set out his protest, and he did not take that action at the request of or under agreement with the anti-conscription committee, but on his own personal responsibility and initiative.
As anti-conscription MP David Watkins remarked to an interstate conference convened to expel Labor's apostates during December 1916, 'personally he was an absolute anti-conscriptionist, but he had never seen it demonstrated that to advocate conscription was against the platform'.
John Wenke and Paech had both been active in the anti-conscription campaign, even though they were Justices of the Peace and elected members of Culcairn Shire Council.
He was also a leading figure in the anti-conscription struggle, and 'Cosme' became a centre for peace movement activity.
Corder Catchpool, the Quaker anti-conscription activist from 1916-1918, established a Bombing Restriction Committee in 1943.
The walk will also take in the places associated with fundraising and anti-conscription meetings and the memorials to those who fought and died in the conflict.
Thus, following the example of the British Trade Union Congress, they opposed conscription, and formed an anti-conscription league.
To look at the gold-lettered anti-conscription memorial painted on the foyer walls of the Melbourne Trades' Hall Building, one would not think it pays homage to the Australian labour movement's proudest tradition:
A fortnight ago we were able to organize a poetry, prose and song evening in the University Dolphin Theatre to help raise money for the defence of young University students charged as a result of an anti-conscription demonstration and public draft card burning in Perth.
It will reveal the key role played by the town during the four years of conflict: receiving refugees and wounded soldiers, recruiting volunteers, fund-raising as well as anti-conscription protests.
There were nightly anti-conscription parades in Montreal and other Quebec cities and these often ended in clashes with the police.
The Scottish experience of the First World War as seen through civilian eyes is the thrust of this book, with topics covered including the anti-conscription movement, the impact of the war on the Scottish economy and the reporting of war by the press.

Full browser ?