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The altering of data or programs due to viruses, hardware or software failure or power failure. See data recovery and corrupted file.


‘the abandonment of expected standards of behaviour by those in authority for the sake of unsanctioned personal advantage’ (Pinto-Duschinsky, 1987). One problem with such a definition is that in many societies corrupt practices, as specified by legal or administrative rules, may often be customary and widely accepted as normal behaviour. Such behaviour, as in some Third World countries or command economies, may be essential for the achievement of socially necessary outcomes. Nor is corruption confined to less-developed or state-socialist economies, as scandals such as the Watergate Affair or, in the UK, the Poulson Affair, demonstrate.



a crime consisting in the direct use by an official of the rights granted to him by virtue of his office for the purpose of personal enrichment. Bribery of officials and graft are also called corruption.

Corruption is known in all forms of the exploitative state, but particularly widespread corruption is inherent in the imperialist state; it is characteristic of the bourgeois state apparatus and parliament, where state and political figures take advantage of their official position to arrange their personal affairs. In characterizing imperialism as parasitic, decaying capitalism, V. I. Lenin pointed to imperialist attributes such as “venality, bribery of enormous dimensions” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 30, pp. 164–65).

One variety of corruption is payment to the election campaign of a candidate for some elective office; after the elections, the elected official makes compensation through various services (granting profitable posts, orders, etc.). Corruption is often linked with lobbying.

Corruption is widespread in the USA. Between 1967 and 1969 the case of Senator T. Dodd was publicized in the USA. The chairman of the Senate Committee on Internal Security, he was convicted of misappropriating $116,000 collected by his supporters in Connecticut for his election campaign fund. In 1969 it was reported in Washington that R. Long, a senator from Louisiana, and D. Brewster, an ex-senator from Maryland, had arranged to have a profitable contract awarded to Frenkil and Baltimore Contractors in return for a large bribe.

Corruption as a formal element of a definition of a crime is provided for in the criminal codes of many bourgeois countries. However, as a rule these crimes remain unpunished.


References in periodicals archive ?
A documentary on the national anti-corruption efforts and the activities of the department was shown, including the initiatives of Nazaha campaign.
Poll results show that anti-corruption policies for giving gifts to non-US government officials run the gamut with 18.
Arseniy Yatsenyuk also offers to empower this international anti-corruption mission to initiate criminal proceedings on corruption cases outside Ukraine, "If such corrupt offences are carried out by Ukrainian officials outside Ukraine, where there are foreign companies, foreign ownership and foreign accounts.
Incentivize anti-corruption compliance: What do you do when your sales goals, job performance criteria and key performance indicators seem to some to be in conflict with compliance?
It was announced that the next meeting of the Council would include discussions on the sectoral anti-corruption plans, on opportunities for civic education on the fight against corruption, and on the ethical standards for the public sector developed by the Center for Prevention und Suppression of Corruption and Organized Crime (CPSCOC).
Our partnership with the World Economic Forum's PACI anti-corruption community will ensure Sahara's continued insistence on high levels of good corporate governance, transparency in the disclosure of information relating to its operations and promotion of anti-corruption initiatives designed to eliminate corruption in all aspects of its operations," he added.
The Office will organize a wide range of activities on anti-corruption strategies over the coming two years that will facilitate the creation of a cross-institutional pool of experts within state structures.
South Sudan Anti-Corruption Commission (SSACC) is an autonomous and impartial body corporate established under Section 147 of the Interim Constitution of Southern Sudan, 2005 as read with Section 6 of the Southern Sudan Anti-Corruption Act, 2009.
Anti-Corruption and Economic and Electronic Security general director Lt Col Bassim Al Miraj said that the national anti-corruption strategy approved by Interior Minister Lt Gen Shaikh Rashid bin Abdullah Al Khalifa in December 2013 was based on the convention.
During the meeting, they exchanged cordial talks and reviewed their commissions' experiences in the field of the protection of the integrity and promote transparency and anti-corruption.
Addressing an elite gathering of government representatives, delegates from state-owned enterprises, and executives from global companies, Al Mady says that Sabic could offer guidance to other companies by sharing its anti-corruption methodologies under its business compliance programmes.
Sabic has voiced serious concerns over corruption prevailing in today's global business environment and has expressed its full support to the efforts of Saudi Arabia in adopting world-class anti-corruption policies and best practices.

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