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The altering of data or programs due to viruses, hardware or software failure or power failure. See data recovery and corrupted file.
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‘the abandonment of expected standards of behaviour by those in authority for the sake of unsanctioned personal advantage’ (Pinto-Duschinsky, 1987). One problem with such a definition is that in many societies corrupt practices, as specified by legal or administrative rules, may often be customary and widely accepted as normal behaviour. Such behaviour, as in some Third World countries or command economies, may be essential for the achievement of socially necessary outcomes. Nor is corruption confined to less-developed or state-socialist economies, as scandals such as the Watergate Affair or, in the UK, the Poulson Affair, demonstrate.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a crime consisting in the direct use by an official of the rights granted to him by virtue of his office for the purpose of personal enrichment. Bribery of officials and graft are also called corruption.

Corruption is known in all forms of the exploitative state, but particularly widespread corruption is inherent in the imperialist state; it is characteristic of the bourgeois state apparatus and parliament, where state and political figures take advantage of their official position to arrange their personal affairs. In characterizing imperialism as parasitic, decaying capitalism, V. I. Lenin pointed to imperialist attributes such as “venality, bribery of enormous dimensions” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 30, pp. 164–65).

One variety of corruption is payment to the election campaign of a candidate for some elective office; after the elections, the elected official makes compensation through various services (granting profitable posts, orders, etc.). Corruption is often linked with lobbying.

Corruption is widespread in the USA. Between 1967 and 1969 the case of Senator T. Dodd was publicized in the USA. The chairman of the Senate Committee on Internal Security, he was convicted of misappropriating $116,000 collected by his supporters in Connecticut for his election campaign fund. In 1969 it was reported in Washington that R. Long, a senator from Louisiana, and D. Brewster, an ex-senator from Maryland, had arranged to have a profitable contract awarded to Frenkil and Baltimore Contractors in return for a large bribe.

Corruption as a formal element of a definition of a crime is provided for in the criminal codes of many bourgeois countries. However, as a rule these crimes remain unpunished.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Hualing, Fu (2016), "China's Striking Anti-corruption Adventure: A Political Journey towards the Rule of Law?," in Weitseng Chen (ed.), The Beijing Consensus?
* Incentivize anti-corruption compliance: What do you do when your sales goals, job performance criteria and key performance indicators seem to some to be in conflict with compliance?
It was announced that the next meeting of the Council would include discussions on the sectoral anti-corruption plans, on opportunities for civic education on the fight against corruption, and on the ethical standards for the public sector developed by the Center for Prevention und Suppression of Corruption and Organized Crime (CPSCOC).
Additionally, 63 companies shared non-public information about their internal anti-corruption policies.
The Office will organize a wide range of activities on anti-corruption strategies over the coming two years that will facilitate the creation of a cross-institutional pool of experts within state structures.
Sabic has constantly been engaged in anti-corruption activities and has pledged to continue to support Nazaha's efforts to fight the menace head-on.
In a 2013 report assessing the corporate anti-corruption and reporting practices of 100 large multinational companies from emerging markets, Transparency International ranked Sabic 11 out of 100 companies in overall score, and first among Middle Eastern companies.
and operate in Latin America have an anti-corruption policy
The goal of the Conference is to facilitate sharing of know-how and experiences on recent developments on anti-corruption and raise awareness within the public on the recently introduced national anti-corruption strategy in Turkey.
For instance, last year's APEC Anti-Corruption Initiative was a wonderful example of the public and private sectors working on an issue to produce a package much more valuable than the sum of its parts.
Two metro stations away, inside the Prague Congress Centre, the world's largest ever gathering of anti-corruption campaigners meets to discuss ways of combating the corruption that dehumanizes and impoverishes everyone in the global community.
Anti-corruption screening of national regulatory acts and identifying corruption risk factors were the focus of a five-day training course, which concluded on 21 June 2019 in Dushanbe.

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