holism

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holism

1. any doctrine that a system may have properties over and above those of its parts and their organization
2. the treatment of any subject as a whole integrated system, esp, in medicine, the consideration of the complete person, physically and psychologically, in the treatment of a disease
3. Philosophy one of a number of methodological theses holding that the significance of the parts can only be understood in terms of their contribution to the significance of the whole and that the latter must therefore be epistemologically prior

holism

  1. any form of sociological theory which emphasizes the primacy of ‘social structure’, ‘social system’, etc., in determining social outcomes, and in sociological explanations. The opposite position is METHODOLOGICAL INDIVIDUALISM. As used by POPPER (1957), the term is mainly a pejorative one. see also SITUATIONAL LOGIC.
  2. in a more neutral sense, the tendency of sociology, in contrast with other more specialized social sciences, to maintain an all-inclusive view of social phenomena.

Holism

 

an idealist philosophy of “wholes.” The term was introduced by J. Smuts in his Holism and Evolution (1926).

According to holism, the world is governed by a process of creative evolution, or the process of creating new “wholes.” In the course of evolution, the forms of matter are transformed and renewed, never remaining constant; the holistic process rejects the law of conservation of matter. An unperceived, nonmaterial field, similar to Leibnitz’ monad, which remains constant throughout all of an organism’s changes, is considered to be the bearer of all organic attributes. The “whole” is interpreted in holism as the highest philosophical concept, which synthesizes in itself the objective and the subjective; it is considered to be the “last reality of the universe.” According to holism, the highest concrete form of organic “whole” is the human personality. Imparting a mystical character to the “factor of wholeness,” holism considers it to be nonmaterial and unknowable.

Holistic ideas have been developed by A. Meyer-Abich in Germany and A. Leman in France. In modern Western literature the term is sometimes used to designate the principle of integrity.

REFERENCES

Bogomolov, A. S. Ideia razvitiia v burzhuaznoi filosofii 19 i 20 vekov. Moscow, 1962.
Kremianskii, V. I. Strukturnye urovni zhivoi materii. Moscow, 1969.
Haldane, J. S. The Philosophical Basis of Biology. London, 1931.

I. V. BLAUBERG

holism

[′hō‚liz·əm]
(biology)
The view that the whole of a complex system, such as a cell or organism, is functionally greater than the sum of its parts. Also known as organicism.
References in periodicals archive ?
If we replace the two occurrences of "corporation" (in this last sentence) with "group," we will get a general denial of the anti-reductionist approach that Dworkin represents.
Suppose instead that the anti-reductionist argues that a proposed reduction does not yield a mental state that is subject to the normative constraints that govern intentions.
Traditionally the dispute between reductionists and anti-reductionists has been about whether mental concepts are analyzable in terms of non-mental concepts.
Neither provided serious and sustained anti-reductionist formulations in regard to ethics and religion.
It doesn't follow from this anti-reductionist approach, however, that one cannot make intelligible statements about issues within knowledge, but only that what can be said 'will itself ineliminably employ the concept of knowledge, and not in a merely preparatory fashion prior to a definition or elimination of knowledge' (73).
For whether this anti-reductionist block amounts to more than a case of stone-walling seems an open question.
Nevertheless, Hanna provides a new anti-reductionist argument, the discussion of which might shed light on some modal issues involved in the debate.
The third lecture outlines Grice's anti-reductionist "constructivist" case for the legitimacy of the notion of absolute value.

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