These included: Antiaris
toxicaria (latex), which contains cardiotonic cardenolides-the plant is toxic and is used as dart poison by local people (Carter et al.
The tree is called chenchen or antiaris
, but also ako, koto, and kyenkyen are commonly used names, as well as bonkonko, kirundu, oro, ogiovu, ako, andoum, tsangu, akeche, mkuzu, mlulu, and mumaka.
Investigation of synergistic effects of extracts from Erythrophleum suaveolens, Azadirachta indica, and Chromolaena odorata on the durability of Antiaris
Because of this quality, this leaf is used as a container for many days over a fire to dehydrate the poisonous latex of the Antiaris
toxicaria tree until it becomes the poison for blowpipe darts (Zahorka 2008).
Based on the study, the chimpanzee medicine chest apparently included the following: Antiaris
toxicaria leaves (anti-tumor), Cordia abyssinica pith (anti-malarial and anti-bacterial), Ficus capensis (anti-bacterial), Ficus natalensis bark (anti-diarrheal), Ficus urceolaris leaves (de-worming agent), and many more.
Other less common or locally important traditional species found planted or protected in gardens and tree groves, particularly in Melanesia and in parts of western Micronesia, include Antiaris
toxicaria, Burkella obovata, Pangium edule, Sterculia spp.
Ben Clift of Renaissance Specialty Veneer Products, Columbus, IN, said the tree is called chenchen or antiaris
as well as ako and koto.
toxicaria, Boehmeria nivea, Borassus flabellifer,
and kyenkyen are the most commonly used, but bonkonko, kirundu, oro, ogiovu, ako, andoum, tsangu, akeche, mkuzu, mlulu, and mumaka are also used in various parts of the world.
He also addresses some past misunderstandings about the nature of this poison and its botanical source, Antiaris
Blowpipe dart poison in Borneo is generally produced from the latex of the Antiaris
toxicaria tree (Moraceae).
One of them, Dayun, I photographed later in the village, still wearing his loincloth, and Bujaam and his son Bujampur guided me next day, still wearing their loincloths, to a huge Antiaris
toxicaria tree, the latex of which is processed into dart poison.