Antiaris


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Antiaris

 

a genus of plants of the Moraceae family. They are monoecious trees or shrubs. The flowers are plain; the male flowers grow in globular racemes, and the female flowers are single. There are five or six species in the tropics of Asia, Africa, and Madagascar. In Russian literature the name anchar, or upas tree, refers to A. toxicaria, a tall tree of the Asian tropics. Its highly toxic juice, which has long been used to poison arrows, contains the glycosides antiarin and antiosidin.

REFERENCE

Hutchinson, J. The Genera of Flowering Plants, vol. 2. Oxford, 1967.
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These included: Antiaris toxicaria (latex), which contains cardiotonic cardenolides-the plant is toxic and is used as dart poison by local people (Carter et al.
The tree is called chenchen or antiaris, but also ako, koto, and kyenkyen are commonly used names, as well as bonkonko, kirundu, oro, ogiovu, ako, andoum, tsangu, akeche, mkuzu, mlulu, and mumaka.
Investigation of synergistic effects of extracts from Erythrophleum suaveolens, Azadirachta indica, and Chromolaena odorata on the durability of Antiaris toxicaria.
Because of this quality, this leaf is used as a container for many days over a fire to dehydrate the poisonous latex of the Antiaris toxicaria tree until it becomes the poison for blowpipe darts (Zahorka 2008).
Based on the study, the chimpanzee medicine chest apparently included the following: Antiaris toxicaria leaves (anti-tumor), Cordia abyssinica pith (anti-malarial and anti-bacterial), Ficus capensis (anti-bacterial), Ficus natalensis bark (anti-diarrheal), Ficus urceolaris leaves (de-worming agent), and many more.
Other less common or locally important traditional species found planted or protected in gardens and tree groves, particularly in Melanesia and in parts of western Micronesia, include Antiaris toxicaria, Burkella obovata, Pangium edule, Sterculia spp.
Ben Clift of Renaissance Specialty Veneer Products, Columbus, IN, said the tree is called chenchen or antiaris as well as ako and koto.
comosus, Antiaris toxicaria, Boehmeria nivea, Borassus flabellifer,
Antiaris and kyenkyen are the most commonly used, but bonkonko, kirundu, oro, ogiovu, ako, andoum, tsangu, akeche, mkuzu, mlulu, and mumaka are also used in various parts of the world.
He also addresses some past misunderstandings about the nature of this poison and its botanical source, Antiaris toxicaria.
One of them, Dayun, I photographed later in the village, still wearing his loincloth, and Bujaam and his son Bujampur guided me next day, still wearing their loincloths, to a huge Antiaris toxicaria tree, the latex of which is processed into dart poison.