Caroline Affair

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Caroline Affair.

In 1837 a group of men led by William Lyon MackenzieMackenzie, William Lyon,
1795–1861, Canadian journalist and insurgent leader, b. Scotland; grandfather of William Lyon Mackenzie King. Emigrating to Upper Canada in 1820, he published (1824–34), first at Queenston, then at York (later Toronto), his noted
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 rebelled in Upper Canada (now Ontario), demanding a more democratic government. There was much sympathy for their cause in the United States, and a small steamer, the Caroline, owned by U.S. citizens, carried men and supplies from the U.S. side of the Niagara river to the Canadian rebels on Navy Island just above Niagara Falls. On the night of Dec. 29, 1837, a small group of British and Canadians loyal to the Upper Canadian government crossed the river to the U.S. side where the Caroline was moored, loosed her, set fire to her, and sent her over the falls. One American was killed in the incident. Americans on the border were aroused to intense anti-British feeling, and soldiers under Gen. Winfield ScottScott, Winfield,
1786–1866, American general, b. near Petersburg, Va. Military Career

He briefly attended the College of William and Mary, studied law at Petersburg, and joined the military.
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 were rushed to the scene to prevent violent American action. The affair passed over, though it had an aftermath, when one of the men who had taken part in the attack boasted of that fact when he was in the United States and was arrested as a criminal. That matter, too, was smoothed over, but the Caroline Affair and the Aroostook War helped to make relations with Great Britain very tense in the years before the Webster-Ashburton Treaty.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Although the scope of Article 51 invites debate, there exists no hard consensus favouring anticipatory self-defence. The text of Article 51 itself does not mention anticipatory self-defence.
Yet, there are many realist legal scholars who argued vociferously for the right of unilateral humanitarian intervention on the pretext of collective defence or anticipatory self-defence in the post 9/11 phase.
The Allegation of a Right to Anticipatory Self-Defence against the IS
"Anticipatory Self-Defence Under International Law", American University International Law Review, Cilt 19, Sayi 1, 2003, s.69-106.
(103) Leo Van Den Hole, Anticipatory Self-Defence Under International Law, 19 AM.
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Prevention, preemption, and anticipatory self-defence are all viable options: The US has long maintained the option of preemptive actions to counter a sufficient threat to our national security.
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IV Interdiction as a Use of Force: Article 51 and Self-Defence A Introduction B The Nicaragua Case C Self-Defence against Non-State Actors D Anticipatory Self-Defence and Pre-Emption V Conclusion A Overview
Can a state act in anticipatory self-defence, not just preemptively against an imminent or proximate threat, but preventively against a more distant threat in space and time?