Caroline Affair

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Caroline Affair.

In 1837 a group of men led by William Lyon MackenzieMackenzie, William Lyon,
1795–1861, Canadian journalist and insurgent leader, b. Scotland; grandfather of William Lyon Mackenzie King. Emigrating to Upper Canada in 1820, he published (1824–34), first at Queenston, then at York (later Toronto), his noted
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 rebelled in Upper Canada (now Ontario), demanding a more democratic government. There was much sympathy for their cause in the United States, and a small steamer, the Caroline, owned by U.S. citizens, carried men and supplies from the U.S. side of the Niagara river to the Canadian rebels on Navy Island just above Niagara Falls. On the night of Dec. 29, 1837, a small group of British and Canadians loyal to the Upper Canadian government crossed the river to the U.S. side where the Caroline was moored, loosed her, set fire to her, and sent her over the falls. One American was killed in the incident. Americans on the border were aroused to intense anti-British feeling, and soldiers under Gen. Winfield ScottScott, Winfield,
1786–1866, American general, b. near Petersburg, Va. Military Career

He briefly attended the College of William and Mary, studied law at Petersburg, and joined the military.
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 were rushed to the scene to prevent violent American action. The affair passed over, though it had an aftermath, when one of the men who had taken part in the attack boasted of that fact when he was in the United States and was arrested as a criminal. That matter, too, was smoothed over, but the Caroline Affair and the Aroostook War helped to make relations with Great Britain very tense in the years before the Webster-Ashburton Treaty.
References in periodicals archive ?
103) Leo Van Den Hole, Anticipatory Self-Defence Under International Law, 19 AM.
Shah, Self-Defence, Anticipatory Self-Defence and Pre-Emption: International Law's Response to Terrorism, 12 J.
GAZZINI, supra note 107, at 238 ("State practice is neither quantitatively nor qualitatitvely consistent enough to affirm the existence of a right to anticipatory self-defence, a development that would stretch beyond recognition the notion of self-defence itself.
The author seems to admit the existence of a right of anticipatory self-defence (p.
Prevention, preemption, and anticipatory self-defence are all viable options: The US has long maintained the option of preemptive actions to counter a sufficient threat to our national security.
According to international law specialist Michael Byers, `there is almost no support for a right of anticipatory self-defence as such in present-day customary international law'.
Christine Gray, author of a seminal modern text on the use of force under international law, argues that the reluctance of states `to invoke anticipatory self-defence is in itself a clear indication of the doubtful status of this jurisdiction for the use of force'.
Is this a legitimate case of anticipatory self-defence (``getting your retaliation in first'') by the USA and the UK, or is this stretching the concept too far?
Israel did not seek to rely on anticipatory self-defence when it launched what appeared to be a pre-emptive strike on Egypt, Syria and Jordan in 1967.
Some states rejected anticipatory self-defence generally, while others held the view that the facts of the incident did not justify the use of pre-emptive force, because Israel failed to prove that Iraq had plans to attack them.
JOYNER, INTERNATIONAL LAW IN THE 21ST CENTURY: RULES FOR GLOBAL GOVERNANCE 168 (2005); Leo Van den hole, Anticipatory Self-Defence Under International Law, 19 AM.
McCormack, Anticipatory Self-Defence in the Legislative History of the United Nations Charter, 25 ISR.