Caroline Affair

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Caroline Affair.

In 1837 a group of men led by William Lyon MackenzieMackenzie, William Lyon,
1795–1861, Canadian journalist and insurgent leader, b. Scotland; grandfather of William Lyon Mackenzie King. Emigrating to Upper Canada in 1820, he published (1824–34), first at Queenston, then at York (later Toronto), his noted
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 rebelled in Upper Canada (now Ontario), demanding a more democratic government. There was much sympathy for their cause in the United States, and a small steamer, the Caroline, owned by U.S. citizens, carried men and supplies from the U.S. side of the Niagara river to the Canadian rebels on Navy Island just above Niagara Falls. On the night of Dec. 29, 1837, a small group of British and Canadians loyal to the Upper Canadian government crossed the river to the U.S. side where the Caroline was moored, loosed her, set fire to her, and sent her over the falls. One American was killed in the incident. Americans on the border were aroused to intense anti-British feeling, and soldiers under Gen. Winfield ScottScott, Winfield,
1786–1866, American general, b. near Petersburg, Va. Military Career

He briefly attended the College of William and Mary, studied law at Petersburg, and joined the military.
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 were rushed to the scene to prevent violent American action. The affair passed over, though it had an aftermath, when one of the men who had taken part in the attack boasted of that fact when he was in the United States and was arrested as a criminal. That matter, too, was smoothed over, but the Caroline Affair and the Aroostook War helped to make relations with Great Britain very tense in the years before the Webster-Ashburton Treaty.
References in periodicals archive ?
An important factor that has influenced the application of anticipatory self-defense is the length of time U.
25) The Doctrine of Preemption, or Anticipatory Self-Defense as it is otherwise known, was clarified in terms of its use by the Bush administration, just as it had been by the Reagan Presidency, which was the first to formally adopt this venerable legal principle as an administration policy.
Preemptive self-defense includes anticipatory self-defense and preventive self-defense.
3) The first feature in these definitions worth noting is that the DOD actually recognizes that there are, in fact, two different levels of anticipatory self-defense.
201) Given the absence of an armed attack by Iraq in the current circumstances, the validity of anticipatory self-defense must be examined.
The White House has sought to justify the right to mount an attack by the new Bush doctrine of pre-emption--or anticipatory self-defense.
Arguments that the Charter permits anticipatory self-defense are unpersuasive.
It is also plausible that because of Oslo, Israel's inclination to preempt Iranian aggression, an inclination that would express the principle of anticipatory self-defense under international law, has been diminished.
Assuming, then, that anticipatory self-defense can be lawful at all, it must be taken in response to a threatened armed attack, rather than any threat of force whatsoever.
A state's right to act in anticipatory self-defense may warrant the use of force when necessary to stop future attacks.