Caroline Affair

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Caroline Affair.

In 1837 a group of men led by William Lyon MackenzieMackenzie, William Lyon,
1795–1861, Canadian journalist and insurgent leader, b. Scotland; grandfather of William Lyon Mackenzie King. Emigrating to Upper Canada in 1820, he published (1824–34), first at Queenston, then at York (later Toronto), his noted
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 rebelled in Upper Canada (now Ontario), demanding a more democratic government. There was much sympathy for their cause in the United States, and a small steamer, the Caroline, owned by U.S. citizens, carried men and supplies from the U.S. side of the Niagara river to the Canadian rebels on Navy Island just above Niagara Falls. On the night of Dec. 29, 1837, a small group of British and Canadians loyal to the Upper Canadian government crossed the river to the U.S. side where the Caroline was moored, loosed her, set fire to her, and sent her over the falls. One American was killed in the incident. Americans on the border were aroused to intense anti-British feeling, and soldiers under Gen. Winfield ScottScott, Winfield,
1786–1866, American general, b. near Petersburg, Va. Military Career

He briefly attended the College of William and Mary, studied law at Petersburg, and joined the military.
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 were rushed to the scene to prevent violent American action. The affair passed over, though it had an aftermath, when one of the men who had taken part in the attack boasted of that fact when he was in the United States and was arrested as a criminal. That matter, too, was smoothed over, but the Caroline Affair and the Aroostook War helped to make relations with Great Britain very tense in the years before the Webster-Ashburton Treaty.
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References in periodicals archive ?
actual armed attack, and thus anticipatory self-defense is not
Anticipatory Self-Defense under Customary International Law B.
"Legal Distinction Between Preemption, Preventative Self-Defense, and Anticipatory Self-Defense", 2002, http://library.rumsfeld.com/doclib/sp/2564/2002-10- 16%20from%20William%20Haynes%20re%20 Legal%20Distinction%20Between%20Preemption,%20Preventive%20and%20Anticipatory%20 SelfDefense.pdf, (Erisim Tarihi 10 Ocak 2015)
(20) The Turkish government countered, asserting its right to anticipatory self-defense and stating that it would act again, to include crossing back into Syria if necessary, to defend its national interests and security.
And does the Genocide Convention address itself anywhere to the vital security issue of anticipatory self-defense?
anticipatory self-defense. (58) Although it is occasionally suggested
Even if it is already too late to implement lawful strategies of anticipatory self-defense, there are still efforts that should be undertaken soon.
They must be conducted either in self-defense after an attack, or in anticipatory self-defense against an immediate threat, when taking time to discuss non-lethal alternatives is not feasible.
Legal scholars, practitioners, and international courts have parsed the meaning of "armed attack," (2) argued over the legitimacy of anticipatory self-defense, (3) and debated application of the Caroline doctrine (4) in states that are unwilling or unable to prevent armed attacks by non-state actors.
Israel, the Israeli Supreme Court held that the conflicts between Israel and Palestinian terrorists constituted an international armed conflict, (27) and that the killings were lawful under the doctrine of anticipatory self-defense. (28) Under IHL, in an international armed conflict, Palestinian terrorists are lawfully subject to attack only so long as they are directly participating in hostilities.