Caroline Affair

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Caroline Affair.

In 1837 a group of men led by William Lyon MackenzieMackenzie, William Lyon,
1795–1861, Canadian journalist and insurgent leader, b. Scotland; grandfather of William Lyon Mackenzie King. Emigrating to Upper Canada in 1820, he published (1824–34), first at Queenston, then at York (later Toronto), his noted
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 rebelled in Upper Canada (now Ontario), demanding a more democratic government. There was much sympathy for their cause in the United States, and a small steamer, the Caroline, owned by U.S. citizens, carried men and supplies from the U.S. side of the Niagara river to the Canadian rebels on Navy Island just above Niagara Falls. On the night of Dec. 29, 1837, a small group of British and Canadians loyal to the Upper Canadian government crossed the river to the U.S. side where the Caroline was moored, loosed her, set fire to her, and sent her over the falls. One American was killed in the incident. Americans on the border were aroused to intense anti-British feeling, and soldiers under Gen. Winfield ScottScott, Winfield,
1786–1866, American general, b. near Petersburg, Va. Military Career

He briefly attended the College of William and Mary, studied law at Petersburg, and joined the military.
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 were rushed to the scene to prevent violent American action. The affair passed over, though it had an aftermath, when one of the men who had taken part in the attack boasted of that fact when he was in the United States and was arrested as a criminal. That matter, too, was smoothed over, but the Caroline Affair and the Aroostook War helped to make relations with Great Britain very tense in the years before the Webster-Ashburton Treaty.
References in periodicals archive ?
Additionally, relevant literature notes that anticipatory self-defense may be authorized in response to an ongoing campaign against a state.
20) The Turkish government countered, asserting its right to anticipatory self-defense and stating that it would act again, to include crossing back into Syria if necessary, to defend its national interests and security.
existence of a right of anticipatory self-defense in the face of an
CDATA[ Even if it is already too late to implement lawful strategies of anticipatory self-defense, there are still efforts that should be undertaken soon.
They must be conducted either in self-defense after an attack, or in anticipatory self-defense against an immediate threat, when taking time to discuss non-lethal alternatives is not feasible.
Israel, the Israeli Supreme Court held that the conflicts between Israel and Palestinian terrorists constituted an international armed conflict, (27) and that the killings were lawful under the doctrine of anticipatory self-defense.
State may avail itself of anticipatory self-defense even if its survival
85) The customary right of anticipatory self-defense, which is the legal expression of preemption, has its modern origins in the Caroline Incident.
With respect to civilian-belligerents, there is a correlation between the intensity of objection to anticipatory self-defense claims and the location of the strike, to wit: whether the target was engaged inside or outside a recognized theater of armed conflict.
Responses that precede attacks, otherwise known as anticipatory self-defense, are addressed in the next section.