Anticoagulants


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Anticoagulants

 

medicinal substances that suppress the activity of the clotting system of the blood and obstruct the formation of thrombi.

Anticoagulants affect various links in the process of blood clotting. One may distinguish anticoagulants with direct effect (heparin, hirudin, etc.), which lower the activity of thrombin in the blood; and anticoagulants with indirect effect (dicoumarin, “neodikumarin,” or Pelentan, phenin-dione, “sinkumar,” etc.), which disrupt the formation in the liver of prothrombin, which participates in blood coagulation. Certain preparations that are not classed as anticoagulants also decrease the coagulability of the blood, such as sodium citrate, sodium salicylate, and acetylsalicylic acid. (These bind the calcium in blood, which plays a part in blood clotting.) Anticoagulants are used in myocardial and pulmonary infarctions, in thrombotic and embolic insults, in cases of thrombophlebitis, and in other cases; they are used prophylactically in atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries and the cerebral blood vessels and in rheumatic mitral defects of the heart; in surgery they are used to prevent formation of thrombi in the postoperative period. Anticoagulants are contraindicated in cases of ulcers, kidney stones, diseases that incline to hemorrhage, and pregnancy.

REFERENCE

Zakusov, V. V. Farmakologiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966.

A. A. TSOFINA

References in periodicals archive ?
DeSancho says that, for many patients, cost is a significant factor in their choice of an anticoagulant.
Warfarin) will remain entrenched as first-line therapies for most of the AF and VTE patients, followed by novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) in the developing and underdeveloped countries due to the high cost of NOAC medications.
Evidence for 'rebound' hypercoagulability after stopping anticoagulants.
In a multivariate analysis, concomitant aspirin and oral anticoagulation was independently associated with a 53% increased risk of major bleeding and a 52% increase in hospitalization for bleeding, compared with atrial fibrillation patients on an oral anticoagulant alone (Circulation.
A consultant pharmacist's assessment may include reviews of anticoagulant levels, lab work, physician orders and medication administration schedules.
But if they are also taking an anticoagulant, for atrial fibrillation or because they've had a valve replacement, for example, they may be safer without aspirin.
In a commentary published along with the Duke letter, one physician noted that a 66-year-old woman with one risk factor would have been considered at too-low risk to require aspirin under the old guidelines, but would now be considered at high risk and in need of anticoagulants.
Despite higher anticoagulant costs, total all-cause and atrial fibrillation-related costs remain comparable" between patients prescribed warfarin and those who received the new oral anticoagulant rivaroxaban (Xarelto), Concetta Crivera, Pharm.
Professor Lip said: "Novel oral anticoagulant uptake is still a bit low, probably because of differences in regulatory approval, costs and access to drugs in different countries.
A formal meta-analysis was not conducted due to the heterogeneity amongst the publications regarding the reported study populations, oral anticoagulants or antiplatelet drugs used, tumour pathologies, BCG regimens and outcomes.
Platelet-poor plasma of both LA-negative and LA-positive individuals was used to determine the in vitro effects of different anticoagulants on dPT and dPT ratio as described below.
The findings demonstrated that 10-year mortality from prostate cancer was significantly lower in the group taking anticoagulants, compared to the non-anticoagulant group - 3 percent versus 8 percent, respectively.

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