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the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas


the political rule, either directly or indirectly, of one society, country or nation over another.

Colonialism, however, involves more than just political rule. In the 20th century it has been particularly associated with one ETHNIC GROUP dominating another within the dominated group's territory Thus, in this century, colonialism has been associated with European, white, Christian, wealthy rulers who have attempted to impose cultural values over the ruled by either devaluing or attempting to eradicate the colonized groups’ religions, languages, customary laws and economic activities. Colonialism has therefore been seen by many sociologists as closely associated with the development of RACISM. Also in this century colonization has been associated with the dominance of the colony's economy by the colonizer, and it is this that is one of the key differences which Marxist writers see as distinguishing 20th-century colonization from earlier forms. See IMPERIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM.

Various forms of colonial rule have existed in history, but one important distinction is between direct and indirect rule. In this century, the British in Africa often relied on indirect rule, nominating indigenous people or institutions as representatives of the British crown, whilst the French imposed direct rule from Paris through French officials. See also ORIENTALISM, POST-COLONIAL THEORY.



the political, economic, and ideological subjugation of countries that are, as a rule, poorly developed socially and economically, by the ruling classes of exploiter states. This concept is usually applied to the age of monopoly capitalism, when a territorial partition of the world has been completed and the colonial system of imperialism has taken shape. The term “colonialism” is also used to mean “colonial system.”

References in periodicals archive ?
Such a critical gesture would be congruent with an anticolonialist seizure of the territory of denigration as a site of reclamation.
Although this nation's governmental policy and rhetoric were often anticolonialist when directed towards the practices of other countries, the United States itself increasingly enacted its own colonialist practices in this time.
Fernandez Retamar readdresses Fanon's treatment of Caliban, along with Mannoni's, and centers his own discussion on the idea of mental decolonization in order to reorganize an anticolonialist agenda in Cuba.
Populist generals in Latin American and anticolonialist intellectuals in Africa embraced drug prohibition.
So why is Ms Morgan, a member of a Party that is also, supposedly, anticolonialist, so opposed to Cymuned?
These groups are children of the anticolonialist struggle, but they are even more staunchly anti-Western than Third Worldists were; Third Worldists rejected European mastery absolutely, yet they still valued the material progress brought by technology invented in the West.
and his political support of the anticolonialist movements in Africa and
Outsiders can comprehend the pain and the bitter memories among Estonians or the anticolonialist anger among Malians.
On a broader sc ale, one reaction to the shaming of states is a nationalist backlash (Jetschke, 1999; Ropp and Sikkink, 1999; Risse and Ropp, 1999), which is sometimes, as currently in the case of Zimbabwe, combined with (not altogether unjustified) anticolonialist rhetoric.
To Emily Bartels, for example, the playwright is an early anticolonialist who, because he gives an alien woman from North Africa a voice and an imperial agenda of her own, offers his audience an alternative to "the kind of appropriation [of Virgil] that was supporting European supremacy.
18) He also joined a communist group because it, like Wilson and Roosevelt, was anticolonialist.