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the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas


the political rule, either directly or indirectly, of one society, country or nation over another.

Colonialism, however, involves more than just political rule. In the 20th century it has been particularly associated with one ETHNIC GROUP dominating another within the dominated group's territory Thus, in this century, colonialism has been associated with European, white, Christian, wealthy rulers who have attempted to impose cultural values over the ruled by either devaluing or attempting to eradicate the colonized groups’ religions, languages, customary laws and economic activities. Colonialism has therefore been seen by many sociologists as closely associated with the development of RACISM. Also in this century colonization has been associated with the dominance of the colony's economy by the colonizer, and it is this that is one of the key differences which Marxist writers see as distinguishing 20th-century colonization from earlier forms. See IMPERIALISM, NEO-COLONIALISM.

Various forms of colonial rule have existed in history, but one important distinction is between direct and indirect rule. In this century, the British in Africa often relied on indirect rule, nominating indigenous people or institutions as representatives of the British crown, whilst the French imposed direct rule from Paris through French officials. See also ORIENTALISM, POST-COLONIAL THEORY.



the political, economic, and ideological subjugation of countries that are, as a rule, poorly developed socially and economically, by the ruling classes of exploiter states. This concept is usually applied to the age of monopoly capitalism, when a territorial partition of the world has been completed and the colonial system of imperialism has taken shape. The term “colonialism” is also used to mean “colonial system.”

References in periodicals archive ?
CAOM, 3/SLOTFOM/53, anonymous report of the CAI produced in April 1936 on the subject of the increased coordination of antifascist and anticolonialist activities over the Ethiopian defense campaign.
And yet Clare's awareness of gender politics does not seem to be what propels her further into anticolonialist politics.
Munis (all works 2008), a roughly thirteen-minute video that forms part of the series "Women Without Men," 2004--(the entirety of which will be on display at Aros Aarhaus Art Museum in Denmark this month), follows a woman passionately interested in the anticolonialist protests of supporters of Iranian prime minister Mohammad Mossadegh, who was deposed by the British and the American CIA, which installed the Pahlavi regime, a monarchy, in 1953 (a handout assists the viewer with this story).
The party developed a consistent anticolonialist political line; a grassroots organization of party branches at local level; and links with the worldwide, and especially African, anti-imperialist struggles.
15 million bodies, into what was taking place in Vietnam, regardless of whether the dispute was a revolution, civil war, insurgency against foreign invaders, anticolonialist struggle, reunification drive, or some of all of these.
Upon reaching its new status as world super power after World War II, it is understandable that America wished to avoid provoking the ire of anticolonialist world opinion abroad, and, consequently, it offered some redress to adverse colonial impacts on its Indigenous peoples.
If, at the end of this volume, the author goes off to Aix-en-Provence to study political science with the intention of entering the diplomatic service, rather than go to Yugoslavia to study anticolonialist history or Marxist sociology as some of his chums were to do, it is because the aspirations of his class won out in the end.
But for the former the determining factor in their lives was obtaining an education; for the latter the key element was their coming into consciousness about the anticolonialist struggle.
Two works in particular suffered by being uprooted from their contexts--Rainer Ganahl's photographs of reading groups discussing the Martinique-born psychiatrist and anticolonialist intellectual Frantz Fanon during the protests against the 2004 Republican National Convention in New York and against the 2003 G8 summit in Evian, France (Reading Frantz Fanon, 2001-2006); and Thomas Hirschhorn's RE, 2006, which reconstructed his Musee Precaire Albinet, built in 2004 in the Paris banlieue of Aubervilliers, and featured a four-part library organized by subject ("utopia," "the other," "precariousness," and "art's autonomy") as well as duct-taped chairs set before videos playing lectures given at the original site.
a variant on a slogan historically used in anticolonialist struggles, cheered the crowd.
For instance, the old Tolstoy's anticolonialist views on Chechnya are merely hinted at.
Indigenous," as I understand and use the term, reflects an anticolonialist awareness of ethnicity in national cultures, and emphasizes resistance against colonialism, confronts racism, discusses sovereignty and Native nationalisms, seeks connections between symbolic expression and liberation struggles, and roots culture in some combination of land, spirituality, and language.