antifreeze proteins

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antifreeze proteins

[′an·ti‚frēz ¦prō‚tēnz]
(biochemistry)
Proteins that decrease the nonequilibrium freezing point of water without significantly affecting the melting point by directly binding to the surface of an ice crystal, thereby disrupting its normal structure and growth pattern and inhibiting further ice growth; found in a number of fish, insects, and plants.
References in periodicals archive ?
Antifreeze protein (AFP) is an ice-binding protein produced by organisms living in extremely cold temperatures and encountering freezing environments.
Basari TLP antifreeze protein is a good contribution to the list of such agents already being used for this purpose.
The team's study presents the first direct measurements of the superheating of ice crystals in antifreeze protein solutions, according to Celik.
Abbreviations: ABA, abscisic acid; AFR antifreeze protein; AFLP, amplified fragment length polymorphisms; cM, centimorgan; EST, expressed sequence tag; kb, kilobase; MAS, marker-assisted selection; ORE open reading frame; PAP, pokeweed antiviral proteins; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; PSII, photosystem II; RAPD, random amplified polymorphic DNA; RFLP, restriction fragment length polymorphisms; RMV, Ryegrass mosaic virus; QTL, quantitative trait loci; SNP, single nucleotide polymorphism; SSH, suppression subtractive hybridization; SSR, simple sequence repeat; STS, sequence-tagged sites.
Low temperature extrusion means costly equipment and the crystals tend to grow, conventional stabilizers have only a slight effect and antifreeze protein additives tend to harden the product itself.
Canadian scientists from the Department of Biochemistry at Queens University, in Kingston, Ontario, discovered an antifreeze protein in snow fleas that may increase the shelf life of human organs for transplantation.
Called AFP, or antifreeze protein, the molecule directs ice-crystal formation.
Scientists at Kansai University said Tuesday they have succeeded in efficiently extracting antifreeze protein from pond smelts, allowing for the substance to be used in a wide range of areas such as food and medicine.
The company behind the research, A/F Protein, a Seabright branch, says when its antifreeze protein was introduced into Atlantic salmon, "it resulted in the production of salmon that grow dramatically faster than standard salmon".
Researchers believe that plant varieties producing the antifreeze protein will better withstand the rigors of the freeze/thaw cycle, resulting in products with superior eating qualities.
This antifreeze protein and others like it circulate in the blood of many Arctic and Antarctic fish, binding to the surface of ice crystals to prevent them from growing too large.
Scientists at the University of California (Department of Food Science and Technology, One Shield Ave., Davis, CA 95616) are involved in antifreeze protein research.