"We found that when we gave the laboratory animals antibiotics, the antigen-presenting cells
did not make IL-10.
The origin of these immature antigen-presenting cells
is given in the bone marrow and migrates throughout the body.
DCs are professional antigen-presenting cells
and essential mediators of innate and adaptive immune response, as well as tolerance .
Drosophila APCs have been demonstrated as effective antigen-presenting cells
to stimulate naive CD8 T cells to generate CTLs in a clinical trial.
(22)-(24) For example, at Peyer's patches (PPs), which are well characterized GALT components, orally administered antigens are taken up by M cells located in the follicle-associated epithelium; M cells promptly deliver antigens to antigen-presenting cells
, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, that lie beneath PPs.
The latter cells bind to MHC I on the antigen-presenting cells
and destroy them, whereas the former contribute to immunological memory of the activation event.
The non-helper regulatory T cells, or the antigen-presenting cells
(APC), likely influence immunity in a manner comparable to Th1 and Th2 cells.
While the exact mechanism is unknown, a large numbers of studies have shown that Ganoderma may modulate many components of the immune system such as the antigen-presenting cells
, NK cells, T and B lymphocytesm, which are pivotal to initiating a primary immune response.
"It's mimicking some of the native molecules, but this turns out to be specific to antigen-presenting cells
, endothelial cells, and monocytes," said Dr.
Expression of CD21 forms a complex with CD19 and CD81 to form the B cell coreceptor and it can serve as antigen-presenting cells
, secrete cytokines, and differentiate into plasma cells that produce and secrete immunoglobulins (Foote et al., 2007).
There, protein fragments of the invading pathogen are displayed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells
. Serving as a red flag, the fragments identify the bug and signal the immune system to attack cells infected by that agent.