Antigua and Barbuda

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Antigua and Barbuda

(ăntē`gə, –gwə, bärbo͞o`də, –byo͞o`–), independent Commonwealth nation (2015 est. pop. 100,000), 171 sq mi (442 sq km), West Indies, in the Leeward Islands. It consists of the island of Antigua (108 sq mi/280 sq km) and two smaller islands, the more sparsely populated BarbudaBarbuda,
island (2011 pop. 1,638), 62 sq mi (161 sq km), a dependency of Antigua and Barbuda). Located in the central Leeward Islands, Barbuda lies 25 mi (40 km) N of Antigua.
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 (62 sq mi/161 sq km) and uninhabited Redonda (0.6 sq mi/1.6 sq km). Saint John'sSaint John's,
city (1991 pop. 21,514), capital of Antigua and Barbuda, in the West Indies. St. John's, at the head of a harbor formed by an inlet, is the commercial center of the country. Tourism is important. The harbor has been dredged to accommodate deep-draft vessels.
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, on Antigua, is the capital. Antigua is a hilly island with a heavily indented coast, while Barbuda is a flat coral island dominated by a large lagoon on its western side. Most residents are of African ancestry. Anglicanism is the predominant religion. Tourism is the most important industry, and the on-line gambling and offshore financial services sectors generate additional foreign currency earnings. The last two sectors have been hurt, however, by a 2006 U.S. ban on the processing of payments to on-line gambling firms and by the 2009 collapse, due to fraud, of the bank that was the nation's largest employer. Agriculture, fishing, and manufacturing (bedding, handicrafts, and electronics) also contribute to the economy. Periodic hurricanes can cause heavy damage to the islands. The country has a parliamentary-style government with a bicameral legislature. The British monarch is the titular head of state, but primary executive power lies with the prime minister. Many inhabitants of Barbuda, culturally and politically distinct from Antiguans, have pressed for independence from the larger island.

History

Antigua was sighted by Columbus in 1493 and named for a Spanish church in Seville. The islands were successfully colonized in 1632, when the British introduced sugarcane from St. Kitts. Barbuda was colonized from Antigua in 1661. The abolition of slavery in 1834 hurt the sugar industry; sugar has not been commercially grown on the island since 1985. During World War II the United States constructed naval and air facilities on Antigua; the last U.S. facility on the island, an air force tracking station on the north coast, closed in 2015.

Antigua, with Barbuda and Redonda as dependencies, became an associated state of the Commonwealth in 1967 and achieved full independence within the Commonwealth in 1981. The Labor party, and the Bird family, led the nation in its first decades. Vere Bird was the nation's first prime minister and was succeeded by Lester Bird, his son, in 1994. The islands suffered extensive damage from Hurricane Luis in 1995. Six consecutive terms of Labor governments ended in 2004 when the United Progressive party (UPP) won the election; Baldwin Spencer became prime minister. Spencer and the UPP remained in power after the 2009 election.

In 2009 allegations that American financier Allen Stanford had been running a Ponzi scheme had a significant effect on the country. The Stanford Financial Group was based there; it and its affiliates employed many inhabitants; and the government had received substantial loans from the group while the Birds were in power. A run on Stanford's banks led the government to seize them; other Stanford properties were also seized. The 2014 elections resulted in a Labor victory, and Gaston Browne became prime minister. In 2017 Barbuda was devastated by Hurricane Irma, and in the aftermath the island was threatened by a second hurricane and temporarily evacuated. Browne and Labor won a landslide victory in the 2018 elections.

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Antigua and Barbuda

Official name: Antigua and Barbuda

Capital city: St. John’s

Internet country code: .ag

Flag description: Red, with an inverted isosceles triangle based on the top edge of the flag; the triangle contains three horizontal bands of black (top), light blue, and white, with a yellow rising sun in the black band

National anthem: “Fair Antigua and Barbuda / We thy sons and daughters stand” (first lines), lyrics by Novelle Hamilton Richards, music by Walter Garnet Picart Cham­bers

National motto: “Each Endeavouring, All Achieving”

National animal: European Fallow Deer. (Dama dama dama)

National bird: Frigate Bird, Man-o’-War or Weather Bird. (Fregata magnificens L.) National flower: Agave, Dagger Log or Batta Log (Barbuda); (Agave karatto Miller)

National fruit: Antigua “Black” Pineapple (Ananas como­sus (L.) Merril)

National sea creature: Hawksbill Turtle or ‘oxbill. (Eretmochelys imbricata)

National stone: Petrified wood

National tree: Whitewood. (Bucida buceras L.)

Geographical description: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, east-south­east of Puerto Rico

Total area: 170 sq. mi. (442 sq. km.); Antigua: 108 sq. mi. (281 sq. km.) and Barbuda: 62 sq. mi. (161 sq. km.)

Climate: Tropical maritime; little seasonal temperature variation

Nationality: noun: Antiguan(s), Barbudan(s); adjective: Antiguan, Barbudan

Population: 69,481 (July 2007 CIA est.)

Ethnic groups: Black African 91%, mixed African and European 4.4%, European 1.7%, other 2.9%

Languages spoken: English (official), local dialects

Religions: Anglican 25.7%, Seventh Day Adventist 12.3%, Pentecostal 10.6%, Moravian 10.5%, Roman Catholic 10.4%, Methodist 7.9%, Baptist 4.9%, Church of God 4.5%, other Christian 5.4%, other 2%, none or unspecified 5.8%

Legal Holidays:

Boxing DayDec 26
Christmas DayDec 25
Easter MondayApr 25, 2011; Apr 9, 2012; Apr 1, 2013; Apr 21, 2014; Apr 6, 2015; Mar 28, 2016; Apr 17, 2017; Apr 2, 2018; Apr 22, 2019; Apr 13, 2020; Apr 5, 2021; Apr 18, 2022; Apr 10, 2023
Good FridayApr 22, 2011; Apr 6, 2012; Mar 29, 2013; Apr 18, 2014; Apr 3, 2015; Mar 25, 2016; Apr 14, 2017; Mar 30, 2018; Apr 19, 2019; Apr 10, 2020; Apr 2, 2021; Apr 15, 2022; Apr 7, 2023
Independence DayNov 1
J'ouvertAug 1, 2011; Aug 6, 2012; Aug 5, 2013; Aug 4, 2014; Aug 3, 2015; Aug 1, 2016; Aug 7, 2017; Aug 6, 2018; Aug 5, 2019; Aug 3, 2020; Aug 2, 2021; Aug 1, 2022; Aug 7, 2023
Labour DayMay 2, 2011; May 7, 2012; May 6, 2013; May 5, 2014; May 4, 2015; May 2, 2016; May 1, 2017; May 7, 2018; May 6, 2019; May 4, 2020; May 3, 2021; May 2, 2022; May 1, 2023
Last LapAug 2, 2011; Aug 7, 2012; Aug 6, 2013; Aug 5, 2014; Aug 4, 2015; Aug 2, 2016; Aug 1, 2017; Aug 7, 2018; Aug 6, 2019; Aug 4, 2020; Aug 3, 2021; Aug 2, 2022; Aug 1, 2023
National Heroes DayDec 9
New Year's DayJan 1
Whit MondayJun 13, 2011; May 28, 2012; May 20, 2013; Jun 9, 2014; May 25, 2015; May 16, 2016; Jun 5, 2017; May 21, 2018; Jun 10, 2019; Jun 1, 2020; May 24, 2021; Jun 6, 2022; May 29, 2023
Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations of the World Dictionary, Fourth Edition. © 2010 by Omnigraphics, Inc.

Antigua and Barbuda

a state in the Caribbean, comprising the islands of Antigua, Barbuda, and Redonda: gained independence in 1981: a member of the Commonwealth. Official language: English. Religion: Christian majority. Currency: East Caribbean dollar. Capital: St John's. Pop.: 73 000 (2003 est.). Area: 442 sq. km (171 sq. miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The CBI, in its communication sent to Antiguan authority, has cited diffusion notice issued by the Interpol against the fugitive businessman and sought details of his movement and his present location.
Driving round the island puts you in touch with real Antiguans, as does a meal at Papa Zouk's, an authentic restaurant with seafood to die for, run by German-born Bert, who used to be a diving instructor, and his Antiguan partner.
As of now, the Antiguan government has not unveiled its download site and it is unclear what service model it will use.
Stanford Group, which had an office in Little Rock from December 2006 until its collapse in February 2009, was a member of SIPC, and its representatives routinely sold the Antiguan CDs to customers.
It follows an indication by Antiguan prosecutors this month that they will be seeking the death penalty for Jay Marie Chin, who was found guilty of the murder of her ex-husband Raymond Chin.
Antiguan law does not specifically prohibit trafficking in persons, although forced and compulsory labor are specifically prohibited in the Constitution.
Almost every Antiguan landmark bears witness to the influence of the British on the island.
Was Stanford's decision to call his Antiguan restaurant Sticky Wicket proof that Amercians do understand irony after all?
Stanford has been accused of "massive fraud", by selling $8 billion (Au6.6bn) in certificates of deposit with impossibly high interest rates from his Antiguan affiliate, Stanford International Bank Ltd (SIB).
OICP coordinator Donald Anthonyson said, "It will never be completed." In a way, that's good news, because circa 1995, it was all but over for the Antiguan Racer.
ANTIGUAN Police Commissioner Gary Nelson confirmed last night that he has been fired.
One possibility: Antiguan authorities say they may retaliate by ignoring U.S.