Antiknock Agents

Antiknock Agents

 

chemical compounds added in small quantities (less than 1 percent) to motor fuels to improve the antiknock ratings of the fuels. The best-known antiknock agents are tetraethyllead (TEL) Pb(C2H 5)4, te-tramethyl lead Pb(CH3)4, methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl CH3C5H4Mn(CO)3, and pentacarbonyli-ron Fe(CO)5. Of all the familiar antiknock compounds, only TEL is widely employed in the form of ethyl fluid. This antiknock mixture includes in its composition one or several “lead carriers” (ethyl bromide, dibromoethane, or di-bromopropane), which upon combustion form volatile compounds with lead that are readily removed from the combustion chamber. Motor fuels containing TEL are called ethyl-ated, or leaded. Leaded fuels are highly toxic; safety measures are mandatory when working with them.

REFERENCES

Nefteprodukty, svoistva, kachestvo i primenenie: Spravochnik. Edited by B. V. Losikov. Moscow, 1966.
Motornye, reaktivnye i raketnye topliva, 4th ed. Edited by K. K. Papok and E. G. Semenido. Moscow, 1962.
References in periodicals archive ?
Historically, gasoline MFAs have included Pb, Fe, and Mn, all of which were used primarily as antiknock agents or octane enhancers.
Iron pentacarbonyl was investigated as a Pb replacement antiknock agent in ethanol as early as 1945 [27].
and Wiebe, R., "Iron Pentacarbonyl as Antiknock Agent in Alcohol Motor Fuels," Industrial & Engineering Chemistry 37(6):577-579, 1945, doi:10.1021/ie50426a021.
[41.] Emel'yanov, V.E., Simonenko, L.S., and Skvortsov, V.N., "Ferrocene - A Nontoxic Antiknock Agent for Automotive Gasolines," Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils 37(4):224-228, 2001, doi:10.1023/a:1012391317921.
Also , Lead emissions are associated with the use of lead compounds in gasoline as antiknock agents [12] .
In 2002, of the published patents and patent applications 57% described deposit control additives, 26% antiknock agents, 5% combustion improvers, 5% water stabilizers in petrol, 3% antioxidants, inhibitors, stabilizers, and others (emission reducing additives, antiwear agents, de-emulsifiers, etc.).
Taking into consideration the new trends and problems in this research field a short review about deposit control additives, antiknock agents, combustion improvers, and problems concerning the water content in petrol is presented here.
It was shown that molybdenum compounds are not only lubricating oils with antiwear additives, but they also act as petrol antiknock agents [68].