In short, they state, "the military simply will not be able to operate without utilizing women." (25) Thus, despite their antimilitarist
stance, NOW'S argument for women's equality aligned with the neoliberal logic restructuring the US military, and, by extension, supported the deployment of US servicewomen to wars throughout the remainder of the twentieth century and into the twenty-first century.
However, these male voices, despite the fact that they were given legitimacy through membership in the patriarchal intellectual establishment, did not drown out those of feminists and antimilitarists during this period of "guerra generale." (4) On the contrary, the various strands of discourse converged to create a platform from which women authors could articulate their positions on war, mourning and participation in the public sphere by engaging with literary and cultural constructions of motherhood.
The period between 1911 and 1918 encompasses a number of events, movements and political attitudes that often worked at cross purposes and which all had a stake in defining the role of the mothers of Italy: the Italian campaign in Libya, the emergence of an organized antimilitarist movement that included socialists and anarchists, the continuing "battle of the sexes" and the women's movement, Nationalism and pronatalism, and Italy's intervention in World War I.
Not only did antimilitarists distinguish their movement from the "bourgeois" pacifist organizations that preached international arbitration and global disarmament, they also fought amongst themselves over strategy and ideology.
Miller further insists that the experience of open debate and protest between 1900 and 1914 won even the most pur et dur antimilitarists over to the Republic.
Instead, Wilson urged a peace based on the "equality of rights" among nations, "free access" for all nations to the seas and to international commerce, and the "limitation of armies" and of "military preparation." (178) Moreover, many of his public addresses seemed (like Eastman's antimilitarist
tactics) to skirt the official channels of nation-state diplomacy.
Although Miller admits that no clear link between the soldiers and the antimilitarist propaganda existed, the antimilitarists were successful in presenting the mutiny to the public as a defense of the civil rights of the protesters against an irresponsible military establishment.
THE ROLE of the French antimilitarist Left in the years before World War I and its apparent "collapse" in the face of the nationalist surge in 1914 has for decades been widely debated by historians.
As noted in The Nation (1999), the Kosovo crisis creates a profound dilemma for principled antimilitarists who do not wish to turn a blind eye to ethnic cleansing, with the corollary creation of a mass of powerless stateless persons, but cannot embrace the NATO air war.
In the United States, antimilitarists and the Left failed to move effectively against U.S.
A small group of activists calling themselves the Japanese American Committee for Democracy gamely tried to publicize the efforts of Japanese antimilitarists
, and the China Daily News published resistance dispatches, but also prominent were "I Am Korean" and "I Am Chinese" buttons.
As Pentagon spokesman Kenneth Bacon admitted to reporters on March 30, "I think right now, it is difficult to say that we have prevented one act of brutality at this stage." The crisis creates a profound dilemma for principled antimilitarists
who do not want to turn a blind eye to ethnic cleansing but cannot embrace the NATO air war.