However, these male voices, despite the fact that they were given legitimacy through membership in the patriarchal intellectual establishment, did not drown out those of feminists and antimilitarists during this period of "guerra generale.
The period between 1911 and 1918 encompasses a number of events, movements and political attitudes that often worked at cross purposes and which all had a stake in defining the role of the mothers of Italy: the Italian campaign in Libya, the emergence of an organized antimilitarist movement that included socialists and anarchists, the continuing "battle of the sexes" and the women's movement, Nationalism and pronatalism, and Italy's intervention in World War I.
Antimilitarist women, however, brought politics into the domestic realm in that they idealized the unbreakable connection between mother and son, and then literally inserted mothers' bodies, in the form of authors and activists, into the public conversation about the ethics of war.
Not only did antimilitarists distinguish their movement from the "bourgeois" pacifist organizations that preached international arbitration and global disarmament, they also fought amongst themselves over strategy and ideology.
For all their infighting, antimilitarists were able to rally fellow radicals en masse when it came to confronting "blatant abuses of power and hierarchy on the part of the government and military" (p.
178) Moreover, many of his public addresses seemed (like Eastman's antimilitarist
tactics) to skirt the official channels of nation-state diplomacy.
Miller's argument that the anti-militarists journeyed down the road from revolutionaries to citizens is best expressed by his insistence that high-profile events (the Dreyfus Affair being only one of many) fixed public attention on the antimilitarist message and placed the antimilitarists as the defenders of the revolutionary tradition of social and political justice.
Although Miller admits that no clear link between the soldiers and the antimilitarist propaganda existed, the antimilitarists were successful in presenting the mutiny to the public as a defense of the civil rights of the protesters against an irresponsible military establishment.
In the United States, antimilitarists and the Left failed to move effectively against U.
Although there is a convergence of interests between antimilitarists and sectors of the Right on the issue of "no U.
A small group of activists calling themselves the Japanese American Committee for Democracy gamely tried to publicize the efforts of Japanese antimilitarists
, and the China Daily News published resistance dispatches, but also prominent were "I Am Korean" and "I Am Chinese" buttons.
The crisis creates a profound dilemma for principled antimilitarists
who do not want to turn a blind eye to ethnic cleansing but cannot embrace the NATO air war.