Antimony Compounds, Organic

Antimony Compounds, Organic


compounds in which the antimony atom is bonded directly to carbon. Organic antimony compounds are known for Sb(III) and Sb(V). The principal types of compounds with Sb(III) are the stibines RSbX2, R2SbX, and R3Sb, where R is an aliphatic or aromatic radical and X is H or a halogen, and the stibine oxides RSbO and R2SbOSbR2. The major types of organic compounds with Sb(V), of which the known compounds are mainly aromatic, are ArSbX4, Ar2SbX3, Ar3SbX2, Ar4SbX, ArSb(OH)2O (arylstibinic acids), Ar2Sb(OH)O (diarylstibinic acids), and Ar3SbO (triarylstibine oxides).

One of the major methods of producing organic antimony compounds is the Bart-Schmidt reaction (using diazonium salts):

Other methods include the Nesmeianov reaction and the reaction of organic compounds of lithium and magnesium with antimony halides or organic antimony compounds containing halogens, for example,

SbCl3 + 3RMgX → R3Sb + 3MgXCI

(C6H5)3SbCl2 + 2C6H5Li → (C6H5)5Sb + 2LiCl

Aliphatic antimony compounds are readily oxidized, while the aromatic compounds are more stable. The salts of m-chloro-p-acetylaminophenylstibinic acid are used for the treatment of leishmaniasis.