Antioch

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Antioch,

city (1990 pop. 62,195), Contra Costa co., W Calif., on the San Joaquin River near the mouth of the Sacramento; inc. 1872. It is a processing and shipping center for the agricultural products of the delta area between the rivers. There is also varied manufacturing.

Antioch

(ăn`tēŏk') or

Antakya

(äntäk`yä), city (1990 pop. 124,443), capital of HatayHatay
, formerly sanjak of Alexandretta,
province (1990 pop. 1,002,252), 2,141 sq mi (5,545 sq km), S Turkey, including the cities of Antioch (now Antakya) and Alexandretta (now Iskenderun).
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 prov., S Turkey, on the Orontes (Asi) River, near the Mediterranean Sea, at the foot of Mt. Silpius. Antioch is the trade center for a region where grains, cotton, grapes, olives, and vegetables are grown. The city's manufactures include processed foods, textiles, and leather goods. There is an archaeological museum.

Modern Antioch occupies only a fraction of the area of the ancient city, most of which is buried under alluvial deposits. Important archaeological finds in the area include the Great Chalice of Antioch (see chalicechalice
[Lat.,=cup], ancient name for a drinking cup, retained for the eucharistic or communion cup. Its use commemorates the cup used by Jesus at the Last Supper. Celebrated examples are the Great Chalice of Antioch (Syriac), of embossed silver, excavated there in 1910 and
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), said by some to be the Holy Grail, and, at Daphne, an ancient suburban resort, splendid Roman mosaics (1st–6th cent. A.D.), mostly copies of lost paintings and held to represent the height of mosaic art.

History

The city was founded c.300 B.C. by Seleucus I, king of Syria, and named for his father Antiochus, a Macedonian general. Situated at the crossing of north-south and east-west trade routes, the city soon became a rich commercial center. Antioch was occupied by Pompey in 64 B.C. and quickly became an important Roman military, commercial, and cultural center. The Romans built great temples, a forum, a theater, baths, aqueducts, and other public buildings. The two main streets, at right angles to each other, were lined with marble colonnades and adorned with temples, palaces, and statues.

Antioch was an early center of Christianity; Peter and Paul preached there. It was in Antioch that the followers of Jesus were first called Christians after they severed themselves from the synagogue about 20 years after Jesus' death. Antioch is one of the three original patriarchates (see patriarchpatriarch,
in Christian churches, title of certain exalted bishops, implying authority over a number of other bishops. There were originally three patriarchates: the West, held by the bishop of Rome (the pope; see papacy; Benedict XVI dropped the title in 2006), Alexandria, and
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). Aurelian, who recovered the city from Shapur I of Persia, erected (3d cent.) more magnificent buildings and churches. The city played a significant role in the theological controversies of the early Christian church (see ChristianityChristianity,
religion founded in Palestine by the followers of Jesus. One of the world's major religions, it predominates in Europe and the Americas, where it has been a powerful historical force and cultural influence, but it also claims adherents in virtually every country of
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). St. John Chrysostom estimated its population (4th cent.) at 200,000, excluding children and slaves.

In 526 the city suffered a severe earthquake. It was again captured by Persia in 540 and taken by the Arabs in 637. Nicephorus II reconquered it (969) for the Byzantine Empire, but in 1085 it fell, through treason, to the Seljuk Turks. The army of the First Crusade (see CrusadesCrusades
, series of wars undertaken by European Christians between the 11th and 14th cent. to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims. First Crusade
Origins

In the 7th cent., Jerusalem was taken by the caliph Umar.
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) captured Antioch in 1098 after a half-year siege. Bohemond I was made prince of Antioch. His principality, which extended from Iskenderun (Alexandretta) southward beyond Latakia, was one of the most powerful of the Crusaders' states. In 1268 the Mamluks captured and sacked the city; it was further damaged by Timur in 1401.

In 1516 Antioch, by then much reduced in importance, was incorporated into the Ottoman Empire. The city was held (1832–40) by Muhammad Ali of Egypt, and in 1872 it was badly damaged by an earthquake. After World War I, Antioch was held as part of French Syria under a League of Nations mandate. In 1939 it was restored to Turkey.

Antioch

a city in S Turkey, on the Orantes River: ancient commercial centre and capital of Syria (300--64 bc); early centre of Christianity. Pop.: 155 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
The most likely, and the one any reasonable person would expect, would be that the Hammer of the Jews would break against the unyielding anvil of the Antiochene army.
Scholars have also failed to address the tensions that would have existed among the Antiochene Jews owing to various historical waves of immigration (38).
O'KEEFE, <<"A Letter that Killeth": Toward a Reassessment of Antiochene Exegesis, or Diodore, Theodore, and Theodoret on the Psalms>>, en Journal af Early Christian Studies, 8 (2000) 83-104.
Naturally, there were deviations from the Orthodox teaching both on the Alexandrian and Antiochene side.
Malalas records local Antiochene tradition, a testimony that deserves serious consideration, therefore.
But while Antiochene exegesis 'keeps close to the literal meaning of the text' (44), the Laterculus is interested in little apart from typology: so 'in this respect, the Laterculus seems closer to the Syrians' (45, cf.
One would also notice, that whereas the main theological foundation of the interfaith dialogue in world mission was first provided by an Orthodox, the Antiochene Metropolitan of Mount Lebanon Georges Khodr, on the basis of the "economy of the Holy Spirit" (side by side with the "economy of the Word"), no theological reason is given, or even hinted at, in Ch.
Their topics include whether Severus was the heir of Saint John Chrysostom, the asceticism of Severus: an analysis of struggle in his Homily 18 on the "Forty Holy Martyrs" compared to the Cappadocians and the Syrians, changing Miaphysite attitudes toward Byzantium, Severus at the crossroads of the Antiochene and Alexandrian exegetical tradition, and hymns of Severus and the Coptic Theotokia.
Brock, referring to the Greek version of the Antiochene baptismal service, observed that the coming of the Holy Spirit is associated "with the pouring of the Myron on to the water.
This idea develops from the fourth-century Antiochene tradition characteristic of John Chrysostom (ca.
The two Antiochene apostles continued this practice during their missionary endeavors.
Rather than being Antiochene, Edwards argues that every doctrine that was peculiar to Antiochene theologians such as Theodore of Mopsuestius and Nestorius was rejected at Chalcedon, while the Alexandrian (and formerly heretical) propositions of Apollinarius were affirmed (171).