uptake in the roots is mediated by antiporters
or ion channel-type transporters (HKT, LCT1 and NSCC).
The DTDST gene (also called SLC26A2) encodes the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter (DTDST), which is a sulfate/chloride antiporter
SOS1 (Salt Overly Sensitive 1), having 10 to 12 transmembrane domains and a long cytoplasmic tail, may act as a [Na.
Differential expression and nction of Arabidopsis thaliana NHX Na+/H+ antiporters
in the salt stress response.
Na+ exclusion and salt resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum) are improved by the expression of endogenous vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporters
in roots and shoots.
The ion-transporting cells, which are thought to be responsible for the blue crab's ability to hyperosmo-regulate in dilute seawater, contain a number of enzymes, cotransporters, antiporters
, and channel proteins that facilitate the movement of ions across the gill epithelium.
Nucleotide sugars enter the lumen of the Golgi via specific antiporters
on the tonoplast and plasma membranes (Blumwald and Poole, 1985; Barkla et al.
A novel intracellular K+/H+ antiporter
related to Na+/H+ antiporters
is important for K+ ion homeostasis in plants.
The presumed presence of chloride-bicarbonate antiporters
in the basolateral membranes, apical chloride channels, and paracellular chloride transport is consistent with current models describing MR cells in many animal epithelia such as insect Malpighian tubules (Maddrell and O'Donnell, 1992; Beyenbach, 1995; Pannabecker, 1995; Brown and Breton, 1996; Harvey et al.
Some of them are heavy-metal ATPases, natural resistance-associated macrophage proteins (NRAMPs), cation diffusion facilitators, the Zrt- and Irt- like proteins family, and the cation antiporters
(Hall & Williams, 2003).
2+] functioning by energy-dependent efflux of toxic ions through ATPases and chemiosmotic cation-proton antiporters