Antitoxins


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Antitoxins

 

special substances (antibodies) formed in the organism of animals or man upon entry into it of toxins—that is, poisons of bacterial or animal origin. Every antitoxin has a strictly specific effect; it renders harmless (neutralizes) only that toxin under the influence of which it was formed (for example, only the toxin secreted by the causative agent of diphtheria is neutralized by diphtheria antitoxin), and it has no neutralizing effect on other toxins. Antitoxins are gamma globulins that are capable of interacting specifically with toxins.

Antitoxins are used in medical practice in the form of antitoxic sera (antidiphtheria, antitetanus, antidysentery, antigangrene, antibotulinum, antiscarlatina, antivenom, and so on), which are obtained by subcutaneous injection of a horse (or other animal) with toxins or anatoxins; antitoxin is thereupon formed in the blood serum of the horse. Blood serum containing antitoxin is widely used in prophylaxis and treatment of diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, and other diseases, and it is also used for treatment of persons bitten by poisonous snakes. The therapeutic and prophylactic properties of immune sera are determined by their strength, which is measured in conventional antitoxic units (AU). Thus, 1 AU of diphtheria antitoxic serum is considered to be that quantity of the serum which neutralizes 100 minimum lethal doses of diphtheria toxin when injected into a guinea pig weighing 200–250 g.

Methods of purifying and concentrating antitoxic sera have been elaborated which permit production of preparations that have high AU content and are free of inert substances.

REFERENCES

Zil’ber, L. A. Osnovy immunologii. Moscow, 1958.
Beilinson, A. V. “Syvorotki.” In Mnogotomnoe rukovodstvo pomikrobiologii, klinike i epidemiologii infektsionnykh boleznei, vol. 3. Moscow, 1964. Page 569.

M. A. TUMANIAN

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
All of them were admitted to the ICU and treated with polyvalent botulinum antitoxin and conservative management.
A review of the international issues surrounding the availability and demand for diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use.
Catalase_test ; Gelatin liquefaction test; indole test;nitrate reduction test ;Sugar_fermentation_test; hydrogen Sulphide production test (Oxoid) and litmus milk_medium [13]: Nagler's test by half antitoxin plate [35]: Typing of Clostridium perfringens toxins dermonecrotic test in albino guinea pigs Toxin antitoxin neutralization test [35]: Determination of the MLD of the prepared toxin [15]: Antibiogram sensitivity test (Oxiod): Pathological, gross and histopathological examination
But even more important and most original are Ehrlich's views on the origin of antitoxins (antibodies), his determination of the strength of the serum against diphtheria in 1897 which he expanded to tetanus.
Early suspicion of type F intoxication, suggested by specimens producing positive mouse assay results without protection of mice by injection of antitoxins for botulism toxins A, B, or E, may facilitate timely treatment with experimental type-specific antitoxin, available from CDC.
The company decided to find an antitoxin, which doesn't attack the bacteria directly but does help the body rid itself of the poison that anthrax produces.
Behring's discovery of diphtheria and tetanus antitoxins. Immunol Today.
Toxin-binding antibodies have been known to be potent antitoxins since the landmark studies of Behring and Kitasato, which showed that immune sera protected against diphtheria (68).
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) complex mainly comprises of a potent and stable toxin and its antidote labile antitoxin molecule.
and the first to mine Merck's archives in depth, the book examines vaccine and antitoxin development from 1895 to 1995 in three pharmaceutical firms: H.K.
These strains offer encouragement that an antitoxin treatment could slow the progression of Buruli ulcer.
In 1895, Smith moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts, to accept a dual appointment, serving as professor of comparative pathology at Harvard University and director of the Massachusetts State Antitoxin and Vaccine Laboratory.