Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle

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Granvelle, Antoine Perrenot de


(also Granvela, Antoine Perrenot de). Born Aug. 20, 1517, in Besançon; died Sept. 21, 1586, in Madrid. Spanish statesman, cardinal (1561).

From 1559 to 1564, Granyelle was the closest adviser of the Spanish regent in the Netherlands, Margaret of Parma. He carried out a policy directed at the enslavement and plundering of the Netherlands. Granvelle’s policy provoked indignation in the country and he was recalled to Spain. He was viceroy of Naples from 1571 to 1575, and after 1575 he was an especially trusted adviser of the Spanish king Philip II.

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The engravings were sometimes used as an incentive for larger commissions, as we see that they were in a series of letters between Giovanni Battista and the Bishop of Arras (later, Cardinal) Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle, the first written in 1547, the year of Diana's birth.
For Cardinal Granvelle, see Durme, 1957(1) and idem 1957(2); and the entry under Antoine Perrenot de Granvelle in the Dictionnaire d'histoire et geographie ecclesiastique, v.