Antony


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.
Related to Antony: Cleopatra, Antony and Cleopatra

Antony

Antony or Marc Antony, Lat. Marcus Antonius, c.83 B.C.–30 B.C., Roman politican and soldier. He was of a distinguished family; his mother was a relative of Julius Caesar. Antony was notorious from his youth for riotous living, but even his enemies admitted his courage.

Antony and Caesar

Between 58 B.C. and 56 B.C. Antony campaigned in Syria with Aulus Gabinius and then in Gaul with Caesar, who made a protégé of him. In 52 B.C. he became quaestor and in 49 B.C. tribune. When the situation between Pompey and Caesar became critical, Antony and Quintus Cassius Longinus, another tribune, vetoed the bill to deprive Caesar of his army and fled to him. Caesar crossed the Rubicon, and the civil war began. At the battle of Pharsalus, Caesar took the right wing, and Antony gave distinguished service as the leader of the left. After Caesar's assassination (44 B.C.), Antony, then consul, aroused the people against the conspirators and drove them from the city.

The Second Triumvirate

When Octavian (later Augustus), Caesar's adopted son and heir, arrived in Rome, Antony joined forces with him, but they soon fell out. Antony went to take Cisalpine Gaul as his assigned proconsular province, but Decimus Brutus would not give it up, and Antony besieged him (43 B.C.) at Mutina (modern Modena). The senate, urged by Cicero, who had excoriated Antony in the Philippics, sent the consuls Aulus Hirtius and Caius Vibius Pansa to attack Antony. The consuls fell in battle, but Antony retired into Transalpine Gaul.

Octavian now decided for peace and arranged with Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus the Second Triumvirate, with Antony receiving Asia as his command. In the proscription following this treaty Antony had Cicero killed. Antony and Octavian crushed the republicans at Philippi, and the triumvirate ruled the empire for five years.

Antony and Cleopatra

In 42 B.C. Antony met Cleopatra, and their love affair began. While Antony was in Egypt, his wife, Fulvia, became so alienated from Octavian that civil war broke out in Italy. At about the time Antony arrived in Italy, Fulvia died (40 B.C.) and peace was restored between Octavian and Antony, who married Octavian's sister Octavia; she became, thereafter, Antony's devoted partisan and the strongest force for peace between the two. In 36 B.C., Antony undertook an invasion of Parthia. The war was costly and useless, and Antony succeeded only in adding some of Armenia to the Roman possessions.

In 37 B.C., Antony settled in Alexandria as the acknowledged lover of Cleopatra. He gave himself up to pleasure, caring neither for the growing ill will in Rome nor for the increasing impatience of Octavian. In 32 B.C. the senate deprived Antony of his powers, thus making civil war inevitable. In 31 B.C., Antony and his fleet met Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa with Octavian's fleet off Actium, and Antony found his large, cumbersome galleys were no match for the swift, small craft that Octavian had built. In the middle of the battle Cleopatra escaped with her boats, and Antony followed her. His navy surrendered to Octavian.

The situation of the two lovers was desperate. Returning to Alexandria, they set about fortifying Egypt against Octavian's arrival. When at length Octavian did come (30 B.C.), Antony committed suicide, under the impression, it is said, that Cleopatra had died already. She killed herself soon afterward. Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra. is by far the best known of the many dramas on that tragedy.

Bibliography

See R. Syme, The Roman Revolution (1939); A. Goldsworthy, Antony and Cleopatra (2010).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2022, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

Antony

Mark. Latin name Marcus Antonius. ?83--30 bc, Roman general who served under Julius Caesar in the Gallic wars and became a member of the second triumvirate (43). He defeated Brutus and Cassius at Philippi (42) but having repudiated his wife for Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, he was defeated by his brother-in-law Octavian (Augustus) at Actium (31)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
"So are you telling me that you are defeated?" Antony asked anxiously, "Have you ever had a case like mine?
The explosion happened when Antony, a friend and his girlfriend were setting off fireworks on a patch of land in the Roundwood area.
The explosion happened on Bonfire Night last yearwhen Antony, a friend and his girlfriend were setting off fireworks on a patch of land in the Roundwood area.
With another intriguing title, Thimiru Pudichavan ( Arrogant Man ), Antony returns with his next.
He had turned back to save his friend, Sergeant Fred Foster, who was stopped by the German border guard Antony had just slipped past.
Antony, 42, is now one of the soap's longest-serving actors.
Antony, 42, who plays barman Sean Tully, admits he is looking forward to taking a break from Weatherfield for Dancing On Ice.
All for Love, the title of John Dryden's 1677 drama, effectively summarizes Antony's posthumous reputation as the man who threw everything away for a wily seductress.
All of Peyton's young characters are fully realised and more complex than as first presented; the tragic aftermath of the ill-judged party planned by Antony during his father's absence in honour of his deaf and dumb sister Helena is one of many ways in which both we, and Lily, come to see them all through new eyes.
The petitioner alleged that the body was dumped there by his son-in-law Antony.