In addition, the scarcity of longterm field observations on individual mating pairs has led to a subjective and often inconsistent characterization of the apogonid mating patterns (Va-gelli 2011).
Quinca mirifica is the first described apogonid displaying a very conspicuous ephemeral sexual dichromatism (males).
Most apogonids inhabit shallow tropical coral reefs.
Apogonids occur in a variety of habitats, from mangroves to drop-off zones, sea grass beds, spur and groove sections, and in sandy and rubble patches, but typically, particular species or small group of species are restricted to narrow ecological zones (Vagelli 2011).
Apogonids show important variability in social behaviors and in the reproductive process, including degree of gregariousness, territoriality; length of pair bonding, courtship displays, post-mating levels of mate fidelity, and length of embryo incubation (Vagelli 2011).
Aspects of the reproduction of apogonids are discussed in Chapter 7 with a comprehensive table (7.1) summarizing 45 species in at least 12 (22 by newer information).
Randall (2005) describing a number of cases of mimicry for apogonids. A complete description is given of three kinds of hosts, sea urchins, anemones and branching corals, that Pterapogon associates with during the day (color plates 8.1-8.3).
The idea that an ancestor to gobioids, kurtids and apogonids originated somewhere on the Australian-New Guinea landmass in freshwater is new.
Photographs of five other apogonids were taken at the same station.
A few other species of apogonids have, or variably have, nine visible dorsal spines, deeply notched as VIII-I,9, the eighth spine much reduced in length: Foa albimaculosa (Kailola, 1976), Apogonichthyoides chrysurus (Ogilby, 1889), Holapogon maximus (Boulenger, 1888), Lepidamia species, Neamia octospina Smith & Radcliffe in Radcliffe, 1912), Vincentia badia Allen, 1987, V.
A research fellowship from the Australian Museum, Sydney aided research on apogonids through Mote Marine Laboratory.
The 90-fold higher abundance of apogonids
observed in nighttime surveys compared to that observed in daytime surveys at the same sites in this study underscores this potential limitation of daytime surveys.