The relationship between toxicity and the number of aposematic
spots indicates that there could be a fitness advantage to possessing more spots.
Defensive chemistr y of an aposematic
bug, Pachycoris stallii Uhler and volatile compounds of its host plant Croton californicus Muell.-Arg.
Another survival advantage to depositing eggs in large clusters is that aggregation of larvae increases advertisement of their toxic nature by multiplying the effect of the larval aposematic
coloring (Stamp 1980; Bowers 1993; Osborn & Jaffe 1998).
Evidence for peak-shift in predator generalization among aposematic
Experimental support for aposematic
coloration in the salamander Ensatina eschscholtziixanthoptica: implication for mimicry of Pacific newts.
The vivid coloration is very probably aposematic
too, as the adults when physically persecuted will assume a "dymantic" posture with the red or orange hindwings exposed, and produce an foul-smelling froth of blood and air from the thoracic spiracles.
It is questionable if aposematic
coloration is involved as the snake is not known to be poisonous and is reluctant to bite.
insects as 6-legged fruits: incidental short circuiting of their defense by frugivorous birds.
Predation has been important in the evolution of many amphibian characteristics, such as toxic and distasteful skin secretions, cryptic and aposematic
coloration, and a variety of defensive postures and behaviors (WELLS, 2007; VITT & CALDWELL, 2009).
While diurnal velvet ants have conspicuous aposematic
color patterns, such as those in the genus Dasymutilla, nocturnal species are small and inconspicuous.
1999: Development of colour in an aposematic
ladybird beetle: the role of environmental conditions.--Evolutionary Ecology Research 1: 651-662.
Orange has been suggested to be an aposematic
warning color in the larvae of some marine organisms (e.g.